The four components of each firm were added and totaled, providing a ranking of top decision-making firms in the manufacturing, healthcare and real estate sectors.
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 However, it is certain that top corporate decision-makers do not engage in regular coin-flipping, and their decision-making processes, even if based on little information, affirm intent. Additionally, randomness and luck are presumed to affect all decisions more or less equally in the end. The best decision-makers are aware of the risks involved and decide in favor of one path regardless.
 While currently weak legal compliance regimes do not always ensure that corporate fraud impacts a firm’s bottom line in subsequent years, poor practices on the level of Enron accounting fraud are clear indicators of bad decision-making.
 Comparing firms across currencies means that some changes in market capitalization can be partially attributable to changes in the exchange rate.
 Some firms have already begun this by reporting diversity statistics of employees and staff beyond reporting requirements. Statistics of this kind, for the corporate board and C-suite all the way down to entry-level staff, have been useful in quantifying and clarifying diversity’s importance in reports such as McKinsey’s “Delivering through diversity.”
 For example, Apple’s abandonment of the headphone jack on the iPhone 7 is not a particularly innovative idea — it is not groundbreaking — but it does break strongly from industry norms and is thus bold.