Mobility Mondays

Our Global Mobility experts recognise the complexities faced by organisations and employees.
Our focus is to simplify. 

Global Mobility has been referred to as the decathlon of HR/Reward. So many technical disciplines have to collaborate to deliver the right employee experience, compliance and cost management. There is a lot of technical jargon in the area and we would like to demystify some of this.

We would welcome your input including any issues you would like us to cover.

Markus Susilo

Topic of the week
Monday 11 November


Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK
Markus Susilo

Stock Options and Shares


Compensation that is delivered in shares (share based compensation), or options over shares, is common place in the world of reward. The value of this compensation can be a really significant part of the overall total reward, or compensation package, of mobile employees. No doubt about it, this compensation brings with it complexity. A number of legal, tax and regulatory matters have to be considered.

Given it is such a significant part of a globally mobile employees’ compensation it is essential that those managing employee mobility have a good understanding of the key compliance aspects to guide the business and employees.

Compliance is another reason ensure this is a key area of focus for global mobility professionals. Share based compensation is often administered and delivered by Company HQ teams. Where globally mobile employees are now working outside of the HQ locations it is really important to check that there is a process to connect awards and delivery of share based compensation to local payrolls and compliance.

Definition – what is share based compensation and why is it used?

The terminology around shares can confusion but there are in the main 3 different types.

  • Share options: The employee is given the right to buy shares at a future date at a set price. The employee doesn’t have to buy the shares – hence the language used is one of an ‘option.’ No shares will transfer to the employee unless they exercise the option, or options.
  • Restricted stock unit(s): The employee receives an award of shares that is transferred to the employee at some future date (and usually at no cost to them).
  • Restricted stock: The employee receives a transfer of shares but cannot sell them yet (so there are “restrictions”) – but could do at a future date.
  • Phantom awards: These have nothing to do with ghosts or ghouls! These are share awards (like the above 3) but end out paying in cash rather than shares. There can be local country regulatory rules that make owning and selling shares difficult or not possible for employees – in these situations, Phantom awards are used.

There are lots of different names of plans within companies but usually the awards are one of, or multiples of, the types above. Shares are used as compensation to align the interests of employees and management with the shareholders (the owners).

What are the key tax and social security considerations?

Share awards are compensation, compensation that is usually subject to income tax and social security. Special specific rules may apply in different countries but in general there will be considerations for employers and considerations for employees.


  • Determination and deduction of payroll taxes (tax and social security) as per local law from the shares to transfer to the employee. This happens often by reduction in the number of shares to be transferred to the employee
  • Transfer the amounts deducted as payroll taxes to the fiscal authorities
  • Report participation to local tax and social security authorities in payroll and other local reporting
  • Transfer the proceeds of sale of any shares to the employee (sometimes the payroll process can be used)
  • Review if tax approved or tax advantaged versions of the share awards available locally? How can these be accessed and are they appropriate for the organisation?
  • How should the cost of the awards be allocated and accounted for between the different business units involved?


  • How do employees settle amounts they owe for acquiring shares under an option exercise?
  • Understand the difference between tax deductions that are made by their employer and the eventual tax due to the fiscal authority (on filing of their tax return). When will any additional payments be due?
  • Can any tax advantaged, or tax favoured schemes, reduce the taxes due?
  • Is there any specific reporting to be done as part of net wealth or assets reporting to fiscal authorities?
  • Are there further tax considerations on the sale of shares? Are capital gains taxes and when?

What complications can there be when share based compensations holders become globally mobile?

These are the areas that those involved in global mobility should watch out for (or ensure someone in their organisation is focused on them).

  1. Specific cross border tax rules need to be applied to establish what portion is taxable and reportable in which country. A process is required to ensure this happens.
  2. The tax deduction (before transferring shares to the employees) become “global” – a more complex tax calculation is required to establish the required tax deduction. Local country and cross-border tax support will be required by the HQ team administering the tax deduction process.
  3. Cross border social security rules may come into play. The relevant rules should be analysed to ensure social security is paid to the correct country authority and double payments are avoided wherever possible.
  4. Employee tax return reporting will get more complex. Special double taxation relief aspects of tax returns will need to be completed. The employee will usually require assistance to complete their tax returns.
  5. Cross charging arrangements may result in different tax treatments for employees. In some countries the cross charge itself to a local business can trigger income taxes and payroll obligations – these should be analysed and communicated to employees.
  6. Employees may not be aware of capital gains considerations on the sale of shares in a new country (particularly when moving from a country that doesn’t tax capital gains). A local tax overview covering how share based compensation should be made available to the employees relocating.
  7. The amount of taxes due may be reduced through considering the application of local tax advantaged share based compensation schemes and/or interaction with local expatriate tax concessions. These should be explored to ensure that legitimate tax and related cost reductions are not missed.
  8. Tax rates around the world vary so the employee may have higher (or lower) taxes due on share based compensation as a result of global mobility. Tax equalisation, tax protection and other tax reimbursement approaches should be considered to prevent tax surprises later.
  9. Local regulatory rules should be checked to see if any awards should be converted to cash (Phantom), rather than share based awards.
  10. The taxes due on share based compensation can be significant, particularly where tax equalisation may apply. Budgeting for these costs would enable finance to accrue and prevent surprises.


Share based compensation is amongst the most complex compensation that is paid to globally mobile employees. There are a number of process and technical considerations that have to methodically considered to prevent non-compliance and tax related surprises.

Areas previously discussed

Assignment structuring  - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK  


I’ve been advising organisations on employee mobility now for 20 years. Without a doubt, when a deployment gets complex, takes too long and costs more than expected, a lack of clearly defined assignment structure is almost always a key cause. Those managing employee mobility can be in the middle of all of this. As a result, assignment structuring is a key area to understand for mobility professionals to consult and bring clarity to.

Many organisations deploy employees to work across borders under tried and tested approaches. These might be for high volume moves, such as secondees or assignees serving long standing customers or internal projects. As they are long standing, the business will be experienced on what to expect and, enterprise wide there is often a well-defined and well understood process. Most importantly, there is probably a tried and tested assignment structure in place. However, I find that this is not always the case.

For some organisations, deploying people across borders can be a new or growing activity or they are handling new types of deployments. Some examples of this would be:

  • a whole management team may need to relocate to a new country as the corporate seat or domicile is moving
  • a senior executive is hired into a cross-border role
  • Brexit related regulatory change is requiring executives to commute 3-4 days a week to a new office location.

What do we mean by assignment structure?

These are fundamentals of a work arrangement. The requirements, or constraints, from the business or the employee. At a minimum, it’s necessary to consider the following questions.

  • Should this be a local employment or secondment/assignment? 
  • How should variances in tax rates be handled?
  • Where are the immigration, payroll tax and social security obligations? 
  • What compensation should be paid?

There are many other aspects to consider, listed below. This is not an exhaustive list.

  • What entity will employ the individual?
  • The compensation and benefits ‘home’, where will pensions etc. be administered?
  • What is the employment history? Where have pension and social security contributions been made to date?
  • Where will the employee (and their family) live?
  • Which country office is the employee expected to be based at?
  • What work locations is the employee expected to regularly work from?
  • What travel and accommodation costs are expected?
  • What is the budget for the role?
  • What is the duration of the role?
  • What and where is the next role of this employee?
  • Does the employee have to take on statutory roles e.g. Directorships etc.?
  • Where should the employee receive payroll payments, which location and currencies?
  • Are there entities, and what sort, in the countries in which the employee is expected to work? What relationship, if any, will the employee have with that local business?
  • What support will the employee get e.g. benefits, allowances etc.?
  • What is the role and what will objectives and reporting lines look like?

The key point here, is that having too many undecided moving parts makes it very difficult to analyse, agree and implement a structure. This means more complexity, more time and more risk.

Time spent upfront discussing the above matters with the business is time well spent. It won’t always be possible to have answers to all the above matters, some may well remain flexible or the business may be open to a mobility specialist’s recommendations. This is OK, options can then be put forward for those open matters which can then give different outcomes from a cost, risk and employee perspective and the business can pick the option that best meets overall needs. 

What can go wrong with deploying without a structure?

1. Losing control
Deploying talent is complicated and time consuming. Where relocations and families are involved, there can be a huge amount at stake for the individual. Against this backdrop, there may be a pressing need for the employee to be operational as soon as possible. If an assignment structure is not clear, things will move slowly and uncertainty will develop. The end result is a loss of control for those who are trying to coordinate and oversee the deployment. Timeframes and deadlines slip as complexity increases.  

2. Compensation complexity
Tax and social security rates vary across the world. If the impact of these are identified and analysed during the assignment structuring phase then solutions can be identified. Without review, these issues can come as surprises to the employee and the business. Double taxation and unexpected tax rates resulting in lower net compensation negatively impacts the employee experience. Equally, if there are tax breaks the employee could have been entitled, to but these were not identified, and deadlines to take action have passed, there can be a sense the company has cost the employee unnecessary taxes.

Where the employee moves on local arrangements with local pensions and benefits, it is worth considering where they will go next, and their benefits history to date. A number of local to local moves during a career can bring a jigsaw of pensions and social security entitlements in different countries. It can be difficult to understand the value of these and how participation and benefits withdrawal will be taxed, or not, in the eventual country of retirement.

Having a view of where the employee’s next role will be is key. If you are sending an employee to a low tax country on a local employment, and enabling them to pay the low taxes there (so no tax equalisation applies), asking them to then next relocate to a higher tax country can be challenging and/or costly. In this scenario, would an assignment arrangement have been better?

3. Increased costs 
In some ways this is a by-product of any or all of the above. Most businesses produce an assignment costing and obtain sign-off before employee mobilisation. If a number of aspects of the assignment are not agreed, or final, then a costing simply cannot be accurate. The business will sign off and accrue the wrong costs.

In the tax and social security area, there are a number of structuring considerations that can materially impact the cost of the employee. The applicability of tax exemptions and planning can provide significant savings to both the employer and the employee but they have to be considered in time. It’s never ideal to discover a tax planning technique that can reduce costs to the employer, or increase net pay to the employee, has been missed or is not possible as the assignment structure doesn’t enable it.


Deploying employees without having agreed an assignment structure creates a number of challenges and is best avoided.

The areas listed in ‘What do we mean by assignment structure?’ are a good list of questions to gather information on as soon as possible, in order to analyse and recommend a structure. Wherever possible, the structure or most of it, should be agreed with the business before the employee is actively involved, and in all cases before the mobilisation begins. Not doing so can result in delays, non-compliance, complexity, avoidable additional costs and a poorer employee experience.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


Permanent Transfers - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK


Alongside more fluid forms of employee mobility such as business travellers and commuters, permanent transfers are becoming an ever more common feature of global mobility programmes. Often referred to as ‘one-way’ moves, they bring with them many of the considerations that apply to assignments. For this reason, a detailed understanding of the risks and opportunities that apply are key knowledge areas for those advising, or overseeing employee mobility.


Permanent transfers usually involve a local employee in one country, moving to join as a local employee of another country. The employment changes, the payroll changes and the move is usually for an unlimited duration. Despite all of this, the employee concerned is not normally a local citizen or national, but an ‘expat’.

In many ways, the permanent transfer is treated the same as a local employee: local payroll, local pensions and benefits and local employment contract. Depending on the business rationale for moving, the employer may also provide relocation support and provide support with housing and/or education. These elements are often referred to as the ‘plus’ elements in a ‘local plus’ arrangement. Plus arrangements can often be intended as tax free in the hands of the employee. This means if, for example, housing support is taxable, then the taxes due are settled by the employer.


There is no doubt that we exist in a world where the talent pool for organisations is truly global. Different countries around the world recognise this and offer tax incentives for certain types of workers to attract them. This means that despite the fact the employees are locally employed, they may be able to access tax breaks. The tax breaks usually fall into two categories:

1. Expat tax breaks
These potentially reduce the amount of income tax that is payable by the employee. It could be as a result of travel and workdays overseas, or could be as a result of their specific status in the country. The net result is that the employee can earn more after taxes, and/or the employer can pay more to the employee (after tax), without necessarily having to increase the overall salary. These are important areas to identify early in managing a permanent transfer so that cost savings can be identified and not missed.

These tax breaks come with specific requirements. There can be dependencies in terms of how pay is structured and/or delivered or specific rulings and applications need to be made within designated timeframes in line with specified forms and processes.

2. Employer tax breaks
Similar to the above, special tax rules can also apply, that either reduce or remove from the taxes due certain ‘plus’ benefits. This can be items like relocation, home leave trips, housing and education support. Often, the taxes due on these plus elements are the responsibility of the employer, so reducing these taxes can result in significant savings for the employer and reduce the overall cost of the move and the annual recurring costs. Sometimes, the delivery of these benefits needs to be changed slightly to deliver a lower tax cost. If the tax rules around these are identified early, they can built into costings and discussions around the move and save employer costs.

Countries in which the above types of tax breaks exist include France, Netherlands, India, Ireland, Italy, India, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland and the UK.

  • Timing of move, or timing of payment related move support
    This isn’t always an aspect of the move that is always something that can be controlled but is worth consideration. In some circumstances, changing the timing of the move can deliver a different tax residency status for the employee, which can in itself, mean the taxes due by the employee or the employer can be reduced. It is worth reviewing whether delaying, or bringing forward a move, by a few weeks can result in savings.

    Often, permanent transfers will receive relocation support. If the settlement of the invoices relating to this is close to the end, or beginning of a tax year, then there may be some opportunity to reduce the taxes due by the employer by paying or delaying the payment of these invoices. 

  • Trailing compensation/ share incentives
    There are elements of compensation that may have been earned already (before the relocation) but are ‘paid’ after the move takes place. Bonuses, share options and awards are good examples. In these types of compensation, specific cross-border tax rules can apply to taxation. The application of these rules could result in tax savings. Take the example of a bonus. The bonus may not be taxable in the new country, but could still be taxable in the first country but at reduced tax rates that apply to a non-resident tax person. Similarly, the same concepts could also apply to stock options and share awards too.

Other considerations

There are some areas which, if not identified and thought through, can deliver complexity and surprises later. Here are some aspects to be aware of, consider and work through as needed.

  • US nationals/ tax filers
    It’s important to know if the permanent transfer involves a US national, citizen or green card holder. The tax rules that apply to these employees always need consideration of the US tax aspects, as it’s not possible to look at the host country tax rules in isolation. This can also impact the net pay of the employee and the overall costs for the employee. Make sure you check the nationality and US tax filing status of any permanent transfers.
  • Benefits
    Often, the permanent transfer employee will have spent time contributing to pension arrangements or social security in the country in which they had worked. Now they are moving to work in new country, they will probably contribute to pensions and social security in the new country.
  • Responsibility for taxes
    Letter of employment for permanent transfers often refer to local plus elements and benefit. Sometimes, however, they are silent on the point of who is responsible for the tax due on these items (employee or employer). If this is not clear, then it’s also possible the employee and employer have a different understanding to each other which can cause issue later on. It’s best to state whether each local plus benefit is ‘gross’ or ‘net’.
  • Families moving/employment starts before full relocation
    When an employee starts a local employment as part of a permanent transfer, before they and/or their families have relocated to the new country, the taxation and social security consequences can be different to what is expected.

    There are many practical reasons why these scenarios develop but they can result in the employee having one leg in each country’s tax and social security system. Extra cost and complexity can result.
  • Compensation structures
    It is worth finding out what the business plans to do with the employee once the assignment has finished. If an employee is in a high salary/ low tax location as a local employee, moving them next to a high tax or lower salary location can be then be a challenge. In some scenarios, where the clear intent or plan is to move the employee again, an assignment structure (rather than a local employment) may well be more appropriate.
  • Trailing compensation
    Bonuses and share awards can be taxed with reference to the country in which they were earned regardless of when they are paid or delivered. For this reason, it is essential to check in the case permanent transfers, that the delivery of these types of compensation takes tax rules into account. If a bonus or shares are taxable in the country in which the employee used to work, and then is delivered in the country in which they now work (and after local taxes have been deducted), it can result in a lot of complexity and confusion for the employee.


Permanent transfers are an increasingly prevalent form of employee mobility. A number of tax related opportunities apply, and working through them can deliver reduced cost and an enhanced compensation to the employee. Understanding the tax aspects are key in making sure the right costing for the move is approved and cost savings are not missed.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


Tax aspects of assignment costings - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK  


Assignment costings are a key aspect of managing employee mobility. There are a number of industry rules of thumb, for example ‘assignees cost 3 x home salary’, which can in fact be accurate in some cases, but finance will always want costs they can plan and accrue for. Most organisations therefore prepare assignment costings that determine the annual cost of the globally mobile employee over the period of the assignment and obtain approval of this costing from senior management.

The costings aren’t straightforward. Ideally they should factor in the cost of compensation and benefits into the future. They also involve multiple years and assumptions around key variables like currency and exchange rates.

One of the aspects of these costings that often has people running for cover is taxation. It’s an area that admittedly is quite complex. Let’s look at why, and demystify so that those working in mobility can become familiar with the issues, and be able to support the business in understanding them better.

What are the tax aspects of assignments costings?

The tax aspects can be a really significant part of a globally mobile work arrangement or assignment costing. Based on having worked on, what must be more than a thousand of these during my career, I would say that taxation aspects can easily be a third or more of the overall costs. When you consider that organisations can annually spend millions (dollars, euros and pound sterling), if not tens of millions, on globally mobile employees it follows that very significant taxes amounts are at stake.

Tax can include income taxes, payroll taxes and social security (both employer and employee). There may also be negative tax costs to consider. Hypothetical tax deductions in a tax equalised arrangement can, in the right circumstances, be treated as a negative cost to the employer and will need to be offset against the payments due to the fiscal authorities.

What makes them complex?

The complexity around tax aspects results from a combination of factors. These can include:

  • Employers pays the taxes: The term taxes is broader than just income taxes. It includes income taxes that are the responsibility of the employer, because they are a payroll obligation and social security too. On top of that, in many assignments part or all of the taxes due can actually be due by the employer under tax equalisation arrangements. Where this happens, the taxes payable need to be ‘grossed-up’ (a process that calculates the tax due on tax paid by the employer). Tax itself may also be subject to social security, so additional calculations are required to get this aspect right.

  • Multi-year, multi-country: An assignment can be for a period of two, three or even five years. Two countries are involved so that means that four, five, and 10 tax year calculations may be required as a minimum. I say as a minimum, because tax years around the world aren’t actually all aligned. Whilst a large number of countries do use a calendar year as their tax year, there are a significant number that don’t. As examples - the UK for has a 5 April tax year end, India has 31 March and Australia 30 June. This means that a calendar year in these countries can actually include two tax years. The number of tax calculations required then also increases so two, three and five year assignments may need six, nine or 15 separate tax calculations!

  • Home and host country calculations need to be linked: Assignees often give rise to tax payment responsibilities in both their home and host country. For example, social security could be due in one country, but income tax due in another country (or both). This means there is a need to constantly consider how the two tax systems interact with each other. A country tax calculation can therefore not be done in isolation, it needs to be prepared taking into account the impact on the other country tax calculation. This leads to ‘circular’ calculations, where an update to one country requires an update to the other and then back again.

  • Timing of tax payments and refunds: This is one aspect, probably more than any other, that creates questions and confusion. Tax is a trailing aspect of an assignment. Tax years end after the assignment end date which means that the taxes due for the year can’t be finalised until the necessary tax returns are prepared. The tax payment, or refund due, then can then be made many, many months (or even years) after the time the tax returns are prepared. As assignments end, the employees can often transfer to new cost centres so this mismatch between when tax payments and refunds are due when compared to the assignment itself can create lots of extra work.

  • Different tax treatment in different locations: Life would be really easy if different countries taxed items in the same way around the world. Unfortunately this is not the case. As a result, each item of compensation, or assignment benefit, has to be analysed against the local tax rules that apply to the employee in question. The employee’s own specifics can also result in different tax outcomes. For example, the tax residency or assignment length of an employee may mean certain compensation is taxed differently when compared to others. This level of review is essential to provide an accurate costing.

What can be done to improve this area?

It’s not all complexity and challenge. There are some opportunities in this area to provide real added value back to the business. Here are some things to consider as part of best practice:

  • Get payroll right: Payroll can play a key role in easing the administration around the costs aspects of assignments. If the payroll taxes paid are aligned (as far as is possible) to the taxes that are actually due, the timing related complications can be reduced. This often means more tax paid is paid sooner. However, where this cash flow issue is not a key concern, it can align costs more directly with the period of the assignments, and cause less surprises and work for finance overall. Review this area if you are seeing significant variances (positive or negative) due on filing the employee tax returns.

  • Applying tax planning: Unless tax aspects of assignment costings have been reviewed by tax advisors, only a certain amount of tax planning can be included. There are a number of different tax and social security planning techniques that can be applied based on the individual specifics, these can result in significant savings that should not be missed. Similarly, double taxation or even dual social security can often appear in a costing and this should be a red flag to get specialist input from mobility tax experts. Cash flow and total costs can often be improved. If you are using tax advisors to deliver tax briefings and tax returns to your employees and they are not directly involved in the assignment costings, ask them to review your costings.

  • Establish the correct policy: The assignment costing is mostly a numerical simulation of costs of entitlements that an employee may incur, under the mobility policy or framework of an organisation. What makes these costing more complex, and take longer to finalise is uncertainty. Do spend time to ensure that the entitlements are clear up front, so that time in the costings process is spent reviewing different options, such as employee options in different countries or grades, rather than focusing on the details. Remember, overall cost of an entitlement in a policy should include taxes due on it. Understand which compensation items are taxable and which are not. You might find you can save more money for your organisation and cause less employee dissatisfaction by altering a taxable benefit that the employee values less, than an item that is not taxable that the employee values more.

  • Provide training support to finance: Assignment costing related questions and issues can often generate a lot of extra work for those managing the mobility process in an organisation. The taxes aspects of those can result in lots of questions from finance as a result of the issues covered above. A training session to go through assignment costings with finance and other stakeholders can be really valuable and reduce the number of queries and questions. Similarly, linking your tax compliance process (tax returns) to the assignment costing accrual by finance, can mean that finance can quickly understand what costs has the business already paid and which ones are still to pay.


Assignment costings are a critical part of the assignment management process. The tax aspects in them are probably the most complex aspects. Understanding this complexity not only helps the business understand costs better, but also enables mobility professionals to add value by suggesting process improvements and cost reductions.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


Compensation Management - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK 


Compensation management, or compensation accumulation, was a new phrase not so long ago in the world of global mobility.  Over time, the concepts have quickly developed and become a key aspect of managing mobility programmes and related compliance. This article is not about determining compensation - this is in many ways a real art and science in the area of mobility. Here we focus on the compliance aspects. 

Regardless of how large, or small, employee mobility is in an organisation there has to be focus on this area or non-compliance and unnecessary cost is a real risk. As a result, an understanding of this area is really key for those who manage or oversee employee mobility. In some ways it’s all about understanding what is required and ensuring either in-house or external resources are responsible for delivering it. 

What is compensation and why is it complex?

Compensation is the general term given to:

  • payments in cash to the employee
  • expense reimbursements
  • payments made on behalf of employees to third parties
  • participation in employer benefits and incentives such as pensions, health insurance, bonuses and share awards 
  • payments to fiscal authorities made on behalf employees (taxes and social security).

What makes compensation in the context of employee mobility particularly complex is the number of sources, the different currencies, differing tax treatments and tax years across the world and the multiple process owners and suppliers involved. It’s quite possible that an employee is 'receiving' compensation from 6-8 sources across two countries and in at least currencies in two countries.

Let’s take the relatively straight forward example – the UK employee working in the US for three years. Here are some compensation sources that likely apply:

  1.  UK payroll payments 
  2.  US payroll payments 
  3.  US expense reimbursements
  4.  UK expense reimbursements
  5.  relocation/ shipping expenses for suppliers engaged by relocation management support provider
  6.  tax payments generated by payroll or instructed by tax support provider in the UK
  7.  tax payments generated by payroll or instructed by tax support provider in the US
  8.  UK pension payments made by the UK employer
  9.  private healthcare provided by global healthcare insurers 
  10.  accommodation and rent paid by/settled by the US company.

As the above example shows the compensation for this one employee now involves multiple countries, currencies, sources and process and data owners. Add to this the fact that payroll and reporting compliance is likely required in the UK and the US at the same time and they have differing tax years and differing tax and payroll reporting requirements and we quickly see how complex this gets. The compliance around a single employee who is globally mobile can be quite bespoke and is based on the country combination and individual status of the employee so using general country rules aren’t always easy or appropriate.

Local payrolls will be expert in managing the reporting for local payments but will not have the process agility, or resources, to take all the above into account. As a result, additional resources and expertise need to be deployed. 

What risks does this lead to?

There have been a number of drivers in recent years that have made this an important area for review and management.

More and more tax and fiscal authorities are looking to payroll taxes as an area to focus on to protect and grow tax revenues. This very much includes payroll taxes in the international and employee mobility context.

It’s not that unusual that a fiscal authority payroll audit may involve the review of the employee mobility policy and/or assignment letters. Tax and fiscal authorities around the world recognise the complexity that comes with compensation compliance for globally mobile employees and therefore how difficult resultant compliance can be. As a result, it can become the Achilles heel of an organisation where non-compliance can be found and uncovered. Do you know if all benefits and payments your mobility policy entitles employees to are always considered for payroll and expenses reporting? Ensuring payroll compliance is a key priority to prevent exposure to penalties and interest and related risks.

Increasing focus on controls and employee related analytics means that total costs visibility and proactive ongoing management has become a key aspect of most employee mobility programmes. Organisations have to understand the total global costs of an employee and check the costs are as expected and appropriate accruals are made and updated for finance purposes.

From a regulatory perspective the organisation may have officers who are responsible for 'signing off' that payroll compliance is up to date and accurate. This can’t be done without a process in place.

What approaches are there?

As risks have increased in recent years so has the sophistication in the solutions that organisations can deploy. At the most basic level an organisation needs to build or deploy process and expertise that enables the following:

  • understands the global compensation of globally mobile employees at an individual level 
  • collects the information from all sources on a regular basis
  • consolidates the information into a global total pay summary
  • reviews the information collected against compensation entitlement to check it is complete and review any variances (payments made that should not have been or made at the wrong level) 
  • uses tax and social security expertise or systems to translate the global total pay into local currency and local payroll reporting and compliance instructions 
  • local payroll processing is then shared with other locations in case payroll generated 'compensation' such as wage and social security taxes are reportable in other countries involved 
  • provides reporting to management, finance and tax preparers.

How this process should be managed depends very much on the resources, technology and expertise an organisation has access to.

In some organisations, this area can be managed in-house and others choose to outsource part, or even all, of the process to tax and accounting firms and other providers of global mobility compliance who have developed the required technology and expertise.  Not having a process is a real risk since without it non-compliance will follow.

What benefits can focus on this lead to?

Whilst a driver to implement a compensation management, or accumulation process, is to improve compliance there are a number of other valuable outputs the process can deliver:

  • global payroll compliance – reduced exposure to penalties and interest and enabling adherence to regulatory controls and sign off requirements 
  • visibility of the total costs of the globally mobile employee population
  • provides a mechanism for variance analysis – checking the compensation delivered is the compensation entitlement signed off by the business 
  • enables tracking and reporting over time against strategic goals or targets such as cost modelling and analysis and alignment with diversity and talent programmes
  • acceleration of employee tax compliance process – globally mobile employees tax returns and related policy reconciliations are prepared quicker so that employee satisfaction is increased.


Compensation management / accumulation is a key consideration for those involved in or managing employee mobility.

Whether you have 10 mobile employees or 1,000, the core parts of the process that required attention are similar. As a minimum organisations should check their current process, roles and responsibilities in this area with their own teams and suppliers to ensure they don’t inadvertently have a gap that will result in risks and lost opportunities. 

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


Brexit - Where are we now? - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK 

At the time of writing the UK is in the middle of a historic period of uncertainty. The uncertainty surrounds what kind of Brexit will be implemented and when? Brexit has many, many implications across politics, people and businesses of all shapes and sizes. The Prime Minister of the UK has been clear, the UK will leave the EU on 31 October 2019 so the countdown has begun.

Those engaged in deploying talent into and out of the UK have to continue with employee mobilisations but what does Brexit mean to mobility?

This is a high level summary with links to some information that may be good to review. In keeping with the Mobility Mondays series this is not an over detailed nor deeply technical analysis.

Until we know what kind of Brexit we are getting (Deal or No Deal) it won’t be possible to be 100% clear on the impacts and implications. In fact, I doubt even then it will be 100% clear until new rules start being rigorously tested by real human cases! That said, having the key issues front of mind can only be helpful in terms of keeping the business, employees and key stakeholders informed and updated.

What are the key issues for Mobility professionals?

It’s fair to say that Brexit is an incredibly complex and multi-faceted change, the sort the UK has not really had to work through before, at least in my lifetime. The key issues to consider in the context of global mobility are Immigration, Social Security and Tax. There are many other important ancillary issues too, perhaps softer (less legalistic) ones around EU workforce engagement and UK talent attractiveness, but I won’t cover these here.


I am not an immigration professional, but here are some key practical things to consider. Immigration advice should be sought before making decisions.

The fundamental change here is around Freedom of Movement. At the moment EU nationals and those from Norway, Lichtenstein, Iceland and Switzerland (EEA states) have the right to live and work in the UK without restriction. This will end as the UK leaves the EU. This is a fundamental change. Going forward, once the UK leaves the EU, EU nationals will be subject to new immigration requirements. In reverse, UK nationals working in the EU are likely to face some sort of immigration requirements and considerations too. The UK has signalled a new immigration system will be introduced in January 2021.

Until then the position could be generally summarised considering:

The rights of Irish nationals will not be impacted by Brexit. They can continue to live and work in the UK as they can now (pre-Brexit)

A No Deal scenario

Freedom of movement will end and EU nationals in the UK should consider making applications by 31 December 2020 to the EU Settlement Scheme.

EU nationals arriving in the UK after Brexit will need to apply for a new temporary immigration status - European Temporary Leave to Remain. Details can be found on

A new future immigration system from January 2021. The government has announced details of a new points based system.  Again, details can be found on

UK nationals living and working in the EU should consider this guidance. 

A Deal scenario (the deal that has been negotiated but not yet approved by the UK)

If the deal that has been agreed with the EU gets approved (with no changes) by the UK, then in theory, a transition period is available until 31 December 2020. During this transition period EU citizens should be able to live and work in the UK. 

EU Settlement Scheme described above needs consideration and applications will be needed by 31 December 2020.

The new future immigration system will apply from January 2021.

At this uncertain time, it is important to carefully review what immigration requirements there are now, and what immigration requirements there may be in the future (during the remainder of the assignment or employee mobilisation). These considerations do not apply just in the case of assignments and relocations, the same thought process needs to be applied to business travellers and commuters too.

Social Security 

The UK currently participates in a European social security system that includes EU member states, as well as Norway, Liechtenstein, Iceland and Switzerland. This system provides the framework through which dual social security contributions are generally avoided and provides for aggregation of benefits where payments have been made in different countries. That system will cease to exist when the UK leaves the UK (without a deal).

In a no deal scenario

There are potential dual social security contributions to consider. The UK has proposed draft legislation that provides broadly similar treatment as now under the European system, but this has not yet been enacted into law. A bigger issue is that the European countries have not all stated they will also adopt similar rules. As a result, dual contributions could arise. It’s vitally important to be aware of those who are currently subject to the European rules, (you may hold or have applied for Forms A1) and those who will be moving or undertaking cross-border roles after Brexit. For these cases, careful monitoring of the status and applicable rules going forward is a must.

In a deal scenario (the deal that has been negotiated but not yet approved by the UK)

The status quo is generally maintained until the end of the transition period on 31 December 2021. The current system will largely apply as it does now.  New rules would apply from January 2021 either in the form of a new agreement with the EU or country by country (bilateral agreements).

Tax (Employer, employee and payroll taxes)

The headline here is there is no real change whether we have a No Deal or Deal Brexit. The reason for this is that income and payroll taxes are already national systems across the EU. The Double tax treaties that apply in cross border employee scenarios are also not EU agreements so will continue to apply as they do now. 

Before you rejoice, “for once tax is not complex!” I have to stress a key point (sorry). While there is no change to the rules, the rules may in fact apply more often going forward. One impact of Brexit we are seeing for a number of reasons, is an increase in business travel and commuter travel arrangements. Just as employee, employer and payroll taxes needs to be considered for more formal assignments they also need the same attention for these more informal and flexible arrangements.

In fact, commuter and business travel arrangements can often result in more complex arrangements, as two country tax systems have to be constantly considered. Businesses may well be entering into, and agreeing more and more of these arrangements, without consciously undertaking the due diligence they would around a formal assignment. Those involved in supporting employee mobility can play a key role in supporting the business to reduce risks and costs.


Global mobility experts within organisations are uniquely placed to assist their wider organisations in the coming weeks, with negotiating the people aspects of Brexit. Their expertise and experience will be invaluable in these uncertain times.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


Assignee preparation and success - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

There are many challenges and opportunities involved in managing a global workforce, however there are some common aspects which occur time and again.

Facilitating strategic mobility

For good reasons, the focus of employers is often on tactical matters; deciding who to deploy, where and when. These decisions can be based on several factors, such as how they can best service customers or explore new markets. The challenge is in enabling a more strategic form of mobility that supports, for example, the development of their employees, as the success of these developmental assignments is more difficult to quantify. The extent of employee development cannot be properly gauged at the conclusion of an assignment, rather this can only be determined by observing the foreign assignee’s career and progression for some time after the assignment ends.

Changing global workforce

The world is changing at a rapid pace. Demographic change (ageing workforces in the developed world), the rise of labour workforce protectionism in some major economies, and an increase in artificial intelligence and robotics are major disruptors to the global workforce. Such factors suggest that the future workforce will need different skills and will be in different locations than the workforce of today. Companies that can understand the impact of these changes can proactively plan for them, rather than react to them as they occur.

Getting the compliance done on time

At Crowe, we always tell clients and colleagues that late compliance is costly compliance. Aspects such as immigration, tax, payroll, and social security need to be addressed up front, but businesses are often unprepared for the complexity involved and the lead time that may be required. The only way to overcome these challenges is to be organised, and get the necessary processes underway as soon as possible. Doing so is not easy unless the global mobility team has effective processes in place, and a healthy partnership with the company, so that they are brought in from the early planning stages.

Addressing these challenges

As well as facilitating strategic mobility, planning for the impacts of the changing global workforce, and addressing compliance issues in a timely manner, companies also need to understand what creates value for the business and connect their current global mobility and talent deployment strategies to their future goals. A relatively simple workforce plan shouldn’t need input from lots of different consultants and require months or years to develop. Employers need to understand the skills and experience of their current workforce, look at their future goals to identify what is missing, and focus their talent mobility strategy on addressing and filling these gaps.

Considering welfare and security risks

We live in a somewhat uncertain world, and it is critical that in the face of events such as terrorism, employers can quickly establish contact with their employees, regardless of where they are in the world.

Local knowledge surrounding assignment locations is essential to understanding safety and security risks. However, while some countries may be considered more dangerous than others, safety is often quite a fluid concept. Government guidance is a good starting point, but it is critical that foreign assignees also receive local insights and on-the-ground knowledge.

Employers must also recognise the unique challenges that a foreign assignment presents, with the employee being taken from their familiar surroundings, robust personal support network, and regular routine. This can take a toll on even the most experienced foreign assignees, and employers need to ensure that they provide the necessary support. Wellness aspects, such as socialising opportunities, exercise activities, and leisure time need to be provided for. If these things aren’t addressed, they will have a detrimental impact on both the employee and the company in the long run.

Why some assignments fail

One of the biggest issues when discussing the success of foreign assignments is how we define assignment ‘failure’. A failed assignment is more than just an assignment that didn’t deliver the business case, or one that was terminated early. Companies need to define the expected outcomes of an assignment – both quantitative and qualitative – and determine how these can be measured. It is only then that they can understand whether an assignment can be considered a success or a failure.

Where assignments do fail, the following are common contributing factors:

  • lack of a clearly articulated business case for the assignment and buy-in from the home and host locations
  • inability of the foreign assignee to integrate into the host location's business culture and ways of working
  • an unhappy partner or family impacting on the happiness and productivity of the assignee.

From these contributing factors, assignee selection, preparation, and ongoing support are critical to assignment success.

Addressing failure

The financial implications of a failed assignment are reasonably clear, such as failed customer contracts, a market not being properly exploited, or a development opportunity not being seized.

Less obvious repercussions would be the wasted time and energy spent on a failed assignment. Those that work outside of the global mobility field may be unaware of the complex technical and process-critical success factors behind deploying an individual from one country to another. The enormous amount of time and energy invested into a failed assignment represent valuable resources that could have been deployed elsewhere.

Providing support to ensure success

There are many different support components that employers need to consider when putting together a comprehensive relocation package.

Compliance support – covering aspects such as immigration, payroll, tax, social security, and labour law analysis – is critical to avoid illegal or uncompliant practices. Medical support is equally important, and can be a deal breaker if not appropriately addressed.

Compensation needs to be approached with the bigger picture in mind – is this a long-term local market role or a shorter tactical requirement? How are they compensated in their home country, and what benefits do they receive? Will they be compensated using a home-based or host-based approach? Where will the employee work next? Compensation needs to be determined on an individual level, taking all these factors into consideration.

Foreign assignees normally receive some support to settle into the host country, however most of this is likely to be business-driven. The more practical and personal elements of support – such as assistance to socially integrate, find local information and tips, and build up a support network – are not going to be found in the company handbook. Such aspects are key to making everyday life in the host location work, and can be even more vital for relocating spouses who are often not working and therefore miss out on valuable workplace support.

Looking forward and key trends for global mobility

My personal predictions for the future of global assignments relate somewhat to technology, and I see service intimacy as a big opportunity. The march towards offshoring and automation in the last decade or so has resulted in many efficiencies. But the question remains, how can technology be used to enhance the personal aspects of support? This has huge impact potential, and moving forward I see global mobility teams finding new and innovative ways to use technology to support their employees, ultimately enhancing assignee performance and increasing assignment success.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


Mobility Key Concepts - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK 

With global talent pools, it is ever more critical to ensure that the right talent mobilises at the right time, to the right place to ensure customers and clients receive the right service. It can give a firm a competitive advantage.

Global Mobility is a multi-disciplinary expert area. Finance, Payroll, Tax, HR, Reward and others have to understand each other’s expertise areas and language. Over the course of time, Global Mobility itself has also developed its own technical jargon. Let’s look at this in some key areas, focusing on the compliance and taxation areas I help organisations with.

Policies / Process

  • Tax equalisation
    Tax rates around the world differ. Employees working in a new location can trigger taxation there. Establishing the tax differentials can be a complex, time consuming and costly process and can become a barrier to employee mobility. A number of organisations adopt a tax equalisation approach that broadly results in the employee paying no more, or less, taxes than they did when working in their home country.
  • Tax protection
    In some ways similar to Tax equalisation above except the outcome and purpose is to ensure the employee is not worse off. If they are better off, then this is allowed.
  • Gross paid/local
    This is the default position used with the vast majority of employees in an organisation but can also apply in the globally mobile scenario. This basically means the employee is responsible for taxes arising (in all locations). This can be complex to understand for the employee and complex to administer as tax advice and support is constantly required and can result in some cash flow challenges for the employee.
  • Local plus
    A local plus is an employee who is largely paid as a local. The employee pays tax on salary and regular compensation. However, for a limited period of time they receive additional support, housing and education as two examples. The tax on these items can be settled by the employer.


  • Net paid
    In a number of globally mobile work arrangements tax equalisation (above) will apply. The effect of tax equalisation can be to convert gross pay to net pay. As a result, the employee is entitled to an after taxes ‘net’ amount. This person is now a net paid employee.
  • Shadow payrolls
    Payroll obligations can be triggered in the countries in which the employee is working. Salary and payments are made through payroll in the home country but there is a need to meet payroll obligations in the new country of work. A shadow payroll is a payroll that doesn’t pay the employee, but is a mechanism that allows the employer to meet their local payroll tax payments and reporting obligations.
  • Gross up/ Net to gross
    This is a term used to describe the calculation process to convert net compensation to gross. The gross is required because the gross is the amount of compensation on which payroll taxes is due and upon which payroll tax reporting should be based. Not all payroll systems have the ability to perform these calculations so often tax advisors assist.


  • Trailing compensation
    This is the term given to compensation that is paid after an employee stops working in a location, but in respect of which tax reporting is still required in that location. Bonuses and share incentives are two examples. The performance or earnings period for these types of compensation often relate to duties or tax residency in the country of work. As a result, even if they are paid after the employee has left the country taxes (and therefore payroll) still arise.
  • Permanent establishment
    This is the term given to the presence of a business in a location that has corporate tax implications. Just like people, corporate entities can also either be present, or not present, in a particular country. In the context of employee mobility, the nature of duties performed in a new country, or the concentration of lots of employees over time, can result in a permanent establishment of their employer. The consequences can be very costly and complicated. The corporate (the employer) may have to file corporate tax returns and action associated tax obligations. If employees are being deployed to a country where there is no local entity, or the work being performed is not for the local entity, this issue should be prioritised for review.
  • Certificate of coverage
    This is the name of a document that usually confirms the country in which social security is payable. The document is usually issued under the provisions of a social security totalisation agreement between two countries. In Europe, these forms are called Form A1. These are very important documents as they form the basis on which double social security contributions can be avoided.

These are just few of the key terms commonly used in Global Mobility. Some of these we have already covered in detail previously, but keep an eye out for further ones.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


Transfer Pricing - Filipa Correia, Crowe Valente, Italy


Tax issues and global mobility go hand in hand. There can be tax matters for the employee and for the employer. The corporate tax implications (tax matters that relate to the employer entities) are generally less well understood in the world of Mobility/HR, than the payroll and employee and employer issues.

Within the corporate tax area is transfer pricing. In the context of employee mobility, this is an area that concerns itself with how the cost of employees is borne and cross charged within a group. Mobility often has to work in partnership with finance and tax departments around this issue.

A high level of understanding is therefore essential for mobility professionals. The issue impacts what costs are allowed, or should be deducted, to determine the profits from a corporate tax perspective. It can change the overall costs to the company if not correctly managed.

What is the issue?

The International Tax Framework in the corporate tax area has experienced significant changes in the last few years. Countering tax evasion and avoidance has become a top priority at both EU and international levels due to the consequences of the last financial crisis, and weaknesses and misalignments of the international tax system dating as far back as the 1920s. In short, fast changing business models and structures had, over time, become misaligned with the rules that apply to them.

As a result, the OECD and the G20 crafted the BEPS project. This was launched in 2013 with the OECD’s report Addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting. It targets identified deficiencies in national and international tax rules that leave room for loopholes and mismatches.

The project signals the determination of countries, having recognized the international reach of the issue, to coordinate their actions for the elimination of the deficiencies. Two years after the project was launched, specific recommendations had been issued by the OECD on the appropriate measures at national and international levels. 15 areas of action were identified as priorities. The work proceeds at a fast pace with more and more countries implementing proposed changes.

Two BEPS actions that require closer attention from global mobility perspective are: Action 7: preventing the artificial avoidance of permanent establishment status and Action 13: country by country reporting.

In view of the latest BEPS changes, it is advisable to review intercompany agreements and transfer pricing related policies in place, in order to assess whether they meet the recent BEPS standards and do not raise further risks.

Standard policies for the mobile workforce may no longer be suitable if they do not take into consideration the employees activities, role, levels and the nature or value of the services rendered by this mobile workforce.

The impact of getting the transfer pricing right or wrong is all about compliance and tax efficiency. For example, a tax authority may not allow a sending company to deduct the costs of an assigned worker from its profits. In the receiving location, the company may not be deducting enough costs. As a result, too little or too much profit may be taxed in the two countries. This issue, when it applies to many employees over many years can over time become a big tax issue.

Best practice guidelines

The intercompany secondment usually sees a company temporarily assigning an employee to another company, belonging to the same group, but located in a different jurisdiction. The hosting company would normally, directly or indirectly, benefit from the activities carried out by the employee. 

Under current best practice, the company should properly prepare and keep accounting and contractual documentation that clearly shows and describes the activities and related costs of the seconded employee. This can include:

  • secondment terms and conditions
  • description of functions and activities to be performed by the seconded employee
  • details of recharged costs
  • criteria to determine recharged costs
  • how to split secondment costs between the companies involved. 

Often, the costs that are recharged between the entities are the labour/payroll costs. However, entities may agree a mark-up on the costs in order to recognise and compensate for the full service being provided by the seconding employer.

It is always advisable to clearly identify who bears which cost within an intercompany secondment agreement between the two companies (sending and receiving). This is usually separate from the secondment or assignment agreement with the employee.

The company who assigns the secondee remains their employer for the duration of the secondment and, may continue to pay actual salary and wages, administer employee benefits, bonuses, taxes, employment insurance, and social security payments. These costs and expenses will then be reimbursed by the hosting company, who may also bear additional travel expenses, board and lodging, materials and supplies directly provided to the secondee.

The sending and receiving companies can determine how the costs are recharged between the companies. It will be necessary to consider the business goals of the assignment, the mobility policy type, where the short and long term benefits sit and what appropriate mark ups should apply.

It should also be noted that the cross charging to a group company can also lead to changes in compliance. For example, the cross charge may prevent an exemption under a tax treaty (so income taxes are triggered) or it could be a determining factor in whether, or not, payroll is triggered in the receiving country and company.

What action is required?

In view of the BEPS changes, it is advisable to review intercompany agreements and people related transfer pricing related policies and approaches to assess whether they meet the recent BEPS standards and do not raise further risks. As mentioned above, standard policies for a mobile workforce may no longer be suitable.

Additional considerations

Taking into consideration the changes on permanent establishment (PE) thresholds as part of BEPS a mobile workforce might also give rise to hidden PE risks. PE risk is covered in a separate Mobility Monday article. It would be also wise to review what capacity seconded employees keep to negotiate and sign contracts or whether they have an advisory and more consultative role.

BEPS has increased also reporting and transparency. Another relevant consideration for global mobility is country by country reporting, which deals with the reporting of the number of employees on a full-time equivalent basis. How are globally mobile employees dealt with?


In global mobility, transfer pricing concerns itself with the cross charge of costs between group companies in respect of employees.

Recent developments at a global level mean that this area required careful review so that too little or too much tax is not paid, and the arrangements are robust and reasonable on review by a fiscal authority. It’s a key area for mobility/HR professionals to work closely with finance and tax experts.

Compensation tax approaches - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK 


Global mobility is about the deployment of employees across borders. Those borders represent state or national boundaries, and those states or nations have their own tax systems. 

Tax rates and taxing methodologies differ between countries and this results in different tax rates and differing taxing points (timing of when taxes are due). Compensation also changes in a globally mobile work arrangement, so that new allowances and benefits are now provided to the employee to cover additional costs and support that is required. For example, cost of living allowances, housing, travel and education. 

The combination of different tax rates and different compensation results in complexity. 

Reasonable questions from employees such as ‘how much will I earn each month after taxes?’ and from finance ‘what will this arrangement cost the business annually’ take on new and additional complexity when employees become globally mobile.

To answer these questions it’s necessary to clarify what tax approach is to be applied to the employee’s compensation. The approach essentially takes into account that different taxes may be due in respect of a globally mobile work arrangement but then clarifies what portion of that is to be borne by the employee.  

An absolutely key point is that regardless of what taxes are actually due and where, it is possible to agree a difference approach between the employee and the employer. Essentially, this agreement varies compensation.

What influences approaches?

There are different compensation tax approaches and the right one to apply will take in account of a number of factors including:

a. Tax rates and timing of taxes. The employee will be concerned with understanding how working in another country impacts their compensation after taxes? If an employee is facing increased tax rates, or maybe compensation is taxed when it would not have been in their home country, this can be a real barrier to mobility.

It can be possible for the tax rate in the new country of work to be substantially higher than home. The country of work may tax an employee of the award of share related compensation when tax is only due in the home country when the transfer of actually shares takes place (usually some years later).

b. Compensation. As mentioned above, globally mobile employees receive additional types of compensation and benefits. Without these, the employee could be significantly worse off financially, and not having the right support could reduce the likelihood of success in their role.

Very often, this additional compensation is taxable. The question then arises of whose responsibility is the tax on these benefits? Does the employee expect to pay tax on hotels or housing costs that are taxable?

c. Talent or compensation home. The talent/compensation home is closely associated with the country in which the employee is formally employed.

It can make sense that where an employee moves to a host employment, that they should now pay tax in that country. Equally, where an employee is working for a short period of time outside country of employment that the taxes they should be pay are the home rates.  

Different compensation tax approaches 

It is vital to know which approach should be applied. Payroll, tax returns and reporting can’t really be prepared without clarification. This should ideally be determined and documented up-front. If not, the employee may be expecting the wrong compensation, and the business accruing for the wrong costs. 

The main approaches usually deployed are:

1. Laisse-faire/Gross: The employee is on their own. All taxes due, regardless of when, at what rate and on what compensation are payable by the employee. The approach is often used when employees are either locally hired (from another country) or, an employee moves on a permanent transfer to a new country. 

This arrangement can work well if the compensation levels are set with reference to local norms (in the new country of work), and there are no additional taxable compensation or benefits.  

2. Gross with net benefits: This is often also referred to as the local plus method. Essentially, this approach results in the employee paying taxes on the compensation that other local employees pay tax on. The employer, however, pays the tax on any additional compensation.

The arrangement is usually deployed where the employee is receiving taxable benefits (for example – housing, education) and it is undesirable, or inequitable, for the employee to pay the resulting taxes due. 

3. Tax equalised: This approach ensures that the employee pays the same level of taxes as they would have done, had they not undertaken the globally mobile work arrangement. 

This approach will usually result in either the employee continuing to have home country payroll taxes deducted, or a hypothetical tax amount is deducted from them. The hypothetical tax amount is usually the home taxes that would have been due on stay at home compensation. Any actual taxes then due in either the home or host country are payable by the employer.  

In some scenarios the hypothetical tax deducted isn’t the home country tax rate. It could be a global tax rate or the taxes of another country (neither home nor host). This usually applies where there are employees from multiple countries, between whom, compensation and tax rates equality is desired. 

4. Tax protected: Similar in concept to tax equalised but here, the employee is allowed to pay less tax than the taxes that would have been due in their home country. If the taxes however are higher, then the employer would pay the difference.


It is simply not possible to determine costs of a cross border work arrangement or explain to an employee what they will earn each month, by clarifying which compensation tax approach applies.

There are different approaches and the right one will depend on a mix of tax rates, compensation and the talent approach. 

Key to this area is clarity and deciding that upfront. If not done, over time the employee and employer may have different understandings, with differing total employment costs in mind. The result would be surprises that may not be welcome by anyone! 

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


International payroll - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK 

Global Mobility and payroll are inextricably linked. For those that support globally mobile employees, payroll is a word they can’t escape. It’s an area that all too often can quickly descend into frustration and unexpected complexity (and lots of it!). Yet payrolls are vital, they deliver currency to the employee and compliance to the organisation.  

Given their potential complexity and critical outputs understanding how payrolls work and the different types that exist is absolutely key for those supporting employee mobility.

Context and purposes

Payroll is a process through which to deliver cash compensation to employees, make deductions and payments for appropriate taxes and provide the required reporting to local tax and fiscal authorities.  

Different types of payroll are required for different situations in employee mobility. The type of payroll required may depend on the organisational set-up in country, the employee mobility category, the employee’s tax and social security status and the countries involved. This is what makes it tricky, there isn’t a one size fits all type of approach even at a country level. Local specialist knowledge is always required. 

I like to think of payrolls as having two key outputs – currency and compliance

Currency is about the delivery of cash to an employee into their bank account. This could be any country and any currency. What is required will depend on whether there are any local country rules that dictate whether compensation must be paid in local currency and then the practical considerations around what currency the employee needs and in what amounts. In some countries, tax costs can be minimised or altered directly as a result of where payroll payments are made.

Compliance is about the local country requirements around deductions of taxes from the employee, payment of employer taxes and the reporting of this all to country tax and fiscal authorities. Increasingly around the world there are more and more onerous obligations around payroll reporting. This is a feature of the digitisation of tax authorities around the world who increasingly expect electronic filing of a number of different types of data relating to the employee and compensation. 

Global payroll is an umbrella term often used for a collection of country location payrolls that are part of a standardised process delivered commonly through a system or platform. I won’t be covering this in detail in this article and will focus instead on the technical issues rather than process and systems.

It goes without saying that compliance is not optional. If payroll compliance rules are not met financial penalties, interest and reputational risks follow.

When kind of payrolls may be required in the context of global mobility?

1. Local / domestic

This is the payroll that exists for a domestic employee. Employee is paid via one payroll, in one currency and reporting is required to the local tax /fiscal authority only.

Global mobility professionals would come across these when managing local to local transfers or perhaps when assisting in the localisation of assignees who move to these payrolls. 

2. Shadow 

A shadow payroll is a payroll that doesn’t delivery currency – it delivers the compliance only. From the perspective of the tax authority it’s a real payroll – payroll taxes are accounted for and income is reported to the tax authority.

These types of payroll are used in addition to local/ domestic payrolls to meet compliance gaps. In the case of short term assignees or commuters it may not be necessary for the employee to receive cash in the country in which they are working but a payroll obligation does arise.

3. Hybrid - Local / domestic and shadow

In many cases, there is a requirement to use a payroll to deliver both currency and compliance. 

The starting point here is a local/ domestic payroll that delivers the required country currency to the employee. The compliance requirements are however extended to take account of cross border compliance requirements.  Cross border, globally mobile employees, like assignees usually give rise to compliance obligations in more than one country. 

Payroll taxes, social security and reporting can be due in the country of work but also in the home country. The compensation of globally mobile assignees can also become much more complex, with split payments, new sources and providers involved, meaning that neither the home nor the host payroll delivers and reports the overall global compensation. As a result, shadow payroll type adjustments are required to ensure that all the compensation on which payroll tax payments and reporting are due is correctly captured. These adjustments can be complex and challenging from a technical and systems perspective.

What do you need to watch – some key complications.

A. Multiple compensation sources: As mentioned above, globally mobile employees often have their pay delivery split between different countries. The employee may require home currency to finance pension, mortgage type commitments but also requires host currency to spend and live off in the host country. 
New benefits and reimbursements connected with housing, education and relocation amongst other things will also exist. This all results in multiple currencies and multiple sources of compensation in respect of which payroll compliance is required. 
It’s vitally important to build a good process to ensure there is a good accumulation of compensation process that provides visibility of the full global compensation and employee data to each payroll. Without this, compliance is not possible.
B. Country payroll set-up: When transferring globally mobile employees to new countries or countries with small operations it can often be the case that there is no in-country payroll. In these locations payroll may need to be set up and registered. Separate registrations can be required for tax and social security aspects of payroll. This can be a surprisingly complex and time consuming process in a number of countries.
So that expectations can be managed it’s really important to understand at the outset the process, documentation and related lead times involved in setting up a new in-country payroll and the process to settlement the payments to foreign tax authorities. 
C. Tax and social security reporting: The payroll compliance in a country will be driven by the local business set-up and the individual specifics of the globally mobile employee. The country combinations involved and the tax residency and status of the employee will play a role in determining the tax and social security payment and reporting requirements. 
Assessment of the business set up and tax and social security status review of employees are key. It’s very difficult to assume a position for payroll tax reporting without a country and employee level technical review. Not doing so may either result in non-compliance or in some cases over compliance – paying too many payroll taxes or paying them when technically a payroll compliance obligation did not arise.
D. Off- payroll workers: There is without doubt a movement in many countries to review the classification of certain types of workers to check if they are employees for payroll compliance. Those involved cross-border or international HR, Reward or employee mobility should review if contractors, self-employed individuals are actually classed as such in other work locations by the tax authorities.  The home country status doesn’t necessarily always apply.


Payroll is a top priority for global mobility professionals because it touches on critical aspects for the employees and the organisation. There are different types of payroll that can apply to different kinds of employee mobility.
The key to avoiding non-compliance and delivery of the right payments to employees at the right times is to proactively understand what kind of payroll is required and manage the various complicating factors that follow. 

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


Tax issues to consider  - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

There is no doubt that Global Mobility is one of the most complex areas of HR and Reward. There are at least two countries, many specialists, stakeholders and suppliers that have to work in harmony to deliver the right experience to the employee and enable the right outcomes for the business.

Amongst the many risks that global mobility professionals have to manage is compliance and key amongst them is tax. Taxes can be both a significant cost and compliance risk to an employer. Consequently, globally mobility professionals should have a good understanding of the key issues in this area.

Compliance risks

The global mobility process involves both the ‘corporate’ and the ‘employee’ and as a result the compliance risks for both need to be managed. There are legal and regulatory risks to consider such as immigration, labour law, posted worker directive across Europe and of course tax.

In the area of tax, both the corporate and the employee will have compliance requirements that need consideration

A summary of the key considerations is in the table below, all of these considerations must be taken into account and acted on individually. These are complex, and it’s important that advice is obtained on these matters to avoid non-compliance, associated penalties, interest and penalties. 

Corporate/Employer considerations


Individual considerations

Payroll taxes and related reporting

  • Is the employer required to set up a payroll registration in the country of work and account for payroll taxes?
  • How can double payroll taxes and related cost increases be avoided?

Tax registrations

  • Does the employee need to register with the local tax authority?
  • Are there particular tax concessions or regimes that reduce the taxes due and by when must registration take place?

Social security taxes

  • In which country is social security due and on what compensation?
  • Avoid additional costs of paying social security in two countries (where possible) by applying the relevant cross border social security agreements

Tax return filing obligations

  • Does the employee need to file a tax return in the new country of work? By when must this be done?
  • If a tax return is not required by law, should one be filed to reclaim any refunds or repayments to prevent double taxation?

Permanent establishments (PE)

  • Does the nature of the work the employee is performing result in a presence in that country for corporate tax purposes?
  • Are changes required to the structure of the work arrangement to reduce the likelihood of a PE?

Tax payments

  • When are the tax payments due and in which locations?
  • How has the tax rate changed compared to a pure domestic scenario? What is the difference and how is that managed?

Transfer pricing

  • Which entity will bear what part of the overall cost of the work arrangement?
  • What tax deductions will be allowed for the costs and in which location? What value of deduction will be allowed?

Personal income

  • How will personal income be taxed in the new location? What steps can be taken to prevent or mitigate taxes due?
  • Do any specific tax filing obligations arise (for example relating to bank accounts such as FBAR in the USA)?

Compensation tax planning

  • Can the structuring of the work arrangement or the delivery of compensation be aligned to take advantage of tax reliefs or deductions that reduce the overall cost of the arrangement?

Trailing liabilities

  • Will the employee have to pay host location taxes even after the work arrangement has ended?
  • How will bonuses and share incentives taxation change as a result of the work arrangement?


How do these Tax issues apply to different globally mobile work arrangements?

I like to think the tax issues that apply, relate to how far a globally mobile work arrangement differs from a purely domestic work scenario. A local employee who works only in one work location and has all compensation paid solely from the local payroll represents the pure domestic work scenario.

The more a work arrangement differs from a domestic arrangement the more tax issues probably require consideration.

That deviation can be in two dimensions; work and employee physical location, which tends to trigger changes in obligations, and then compensation make up which tends to drive complexity around compliance.

As the location of work changes and compensation make-up and sources change, such as new allowances, reimbursements or expenses, so do the tax issues requiring consideration.

The table below contains some key issues that apply to different types of globally mobile work arrangements. A number apply to all arrangements such as payroll, tax filings, and social security for example, these are not repeated.

Work arrangement type


Key tax issues to consider

Locally hired expat
  • The acquisition of a non-local national to work on a local employment contract. 
  • Do any special expat tax exemptions apply that could provide beneficial tax rates or taxation to the employee?

Intra-country business travel 
  • Work duties performed in new locations within a country.
  • In some countries with City, State, Local, Canton taxes (USA, Switzerland) payroll reporting and tax returns may be triggered.

Cross border business travel

  • Work duties performed in new locations beyond national boundaries. 
  • Are payroll deduction and reporting obligations triggered?
  • Is social security due – is it possible to prevent dual contributions and cost? 

Cross-border or regional role

  • A role with ongoing requirements to work in particular locations or geographies outside the normal home country. 
  • Are the business travel, hotel costs etc., taxable? Is the cross-border aspect of the role really a permanent office or work location?
  • Are there any local Directorship appointments? These can trigger payroll and tax return reporting requirements.
  • Is a permanent establishment being created by the employee?

Commuter work arrangement/ short term assignees 
  • A role where the employee lives in one country but regularly works in another country. 
  • Are dual payroll deduction and reporting obligations triggered? How will cash flow for the employee be managed?
  • How can double taxation costs be avoided?
  • Is a tax equalisation arrangement required?

Long-term assignment 
  • An assignment that usually involves a relocation from one country to another. 
  • Have the right expatriate tax concessions or reliefs been correctly applied to keep overall employer costs down?
  • How is global compensation from all sources (relocation providers, payroll, home and host expenses) being corrected reporting in the home and host payrolls?
  • How are costs in one country cross-charged to the other? What policy and mechanism underpins this?



The tax issues that require consideration can differ by global mobility work arrangement type and the locations involved. There are a number of core considerations such as payroll, tax filings and social security.

Non-compliance could lead to interest, penalties and negative publicity and attention that should be mitigated by proactive up front review. Up-front review of the arrangement may also highlight tax planning that could significantly reduce overall costs.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


UAE: No tax… no issues, myth or reality? - Markus Susilo - Crowe UAE 
The UAE is a key global economic centre. Key Emirates such as Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Sharjah have significant expatriate workforces and populations making the UAE a key centre into which people mobility takes place. Over time, Dubai has become a place to host international businesses as they set-up and maintain their Middle East and Africa hubs and regional offices. 

For those working in the global mobility area, the deployment of talent into and out of the area can present different challenges to those they may be used to in other locations. 

It’s generally understood that there is no income tax in the UAE but it’s worth noting that despite this there are significant other local compliance requirements. Do you know what they are?

Home tax issues don’t always go away

Even with the ‘no tax status’, a key aspect itself in attracting talent into UAE roles, it’s worth remembering that global mobility taxes aren’t a single location issue.

Care needs to be taken to ensure that ‘no tax’ status is communicated and expected only after considering whether the home country of the employee will actually stop taxing the individual. The difference between no tax and taxes can be very significant based on the country so compensation issues arise if an employee is expecting ‘tax free’ status when it is not available. 

For example, a UK based employee going to Abu Dhabi for nine months will still be subject to UK income taxes and social security. This means employer payroll obligations continue too. US nationals and green card holders continue to have US tax returns and taxes to consider regardless of where they work. Similar principles apply for other countries.

Income tax, social security and payroll issues in the home country have to be carefully reviewed to avoid any compensation surprises or employer payroll non-compliance down the line.

So what are the key UAE aspect to work through?

In the remainder of this article below, my colleague Markus Susilo of Crowe UAE explores some key non tax issues to consider.

No tax in the UAE does simplify that aspect of assignment administration. However, there are other local compliance requirements that do need to be worked through and considered across the employment life cycle. These include jurisdiction, immigration, employment regulations, social security, labour laws, national pension schemes and health insurance.


Broadly speaking, the UAE divide their economic and legal jurisdiction between the onshore sector, dominated by local business interests with restrictions on foreign ownership, and the offshore sector, which consists of free zones. As of now, there are more than 45 such free zones successfully operating within the UAE. They are exempt from the laws of the UAE, unless the respective free zone authority has regulated otherwise.

Immigration regulations

For a non-UAE national to be officially employed by and working for a company in the UAE, he/she must obtain a residence visa and/or work permit. As most of the workforce in the UAE are expatriates, the process of obtaining a work visa is much more transparent than in other countries. This does not mean, however, that the process is not complex and dynamic and highly dependent on the location of the company (onshore/ free zone).

Visas and work permits are usually valid for two to three years and must be renewed at expiry in order to keep employing the foreign employee. Visa holders can sponsor the visa of their dependents (direct family members) provided that they meet certain criteria such as the amount of salary earned.

Federal labour law

UAE labour law regulates matters related to working hours, vacation and public holidays, sick leave, maternity leave, employee records, safety standards, termination of employment and end of service gratuity payments. UAE labour law applies to all employees working in the UAE, whether UAE nationals or expatriates.

Most free zones have opted to adopt UAE labour law and, in addition, also have to consider other employment regulations for companies operating in their zone. However, employees employed in financial free zones in the UAE can be exempt from UAE labour law and subject to a different set of regulations.

Social security

At the end of an employment relationship, companies are usually obliged to pay a gratuity to the employee which needs to be accrued for during the employment of the employee. Furthermore, in the Emirates of Dubai and Abu Dhabi it is mandatory for companies to provide private health insurance (from authorised health insurance providers in these Emirates) to their employees. Additionally, contributions to the state pension and the social security system is mandatory for companies employing UAE nationals.


There is no doubt that no tax status of the UAE can be a key inventive in attracting talent into the Emirates. It’s important that employers check that this tax free status actually is real, i.e. the home country doesn’t continue to tax. 

For UAE based employees that travel on business out of the UAE, it’s important to review whether their duties and activity are taxable in the locations they are working. Depending on roles and countries, tax and employer payroll obligations can arise.

Global mobility professionals deploying talent into the region should always carefully consider local compliance obligations in the areas of jurisdiction, immigration, employment regulations, social security, labour laws, national pension schemes and health insurance.

Careful review and planning around these issues is key and can prevent non-compliance and penal consequences for employers and businesses

Markus SusiloMarkus Susilo


Spotlight on China - Peter Chen, Crowe Ruihua 

How to face uncertainty and adapt to Individual Income Tax rule changes in China?

With the continuous boom of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) economy, not only more and more seconded foreign employees start to work in China, or extend their work permission, but also young generation with foreign citizen becomes entrepreneurs and starts to run their own business in China. Those of us that work in HR, payroll, finance, and tax areas and each foreigner himself/herself in the PRC have been urged to catch up with newly announced Individual Income Tax (IIT) regulations since the end of last year. A lot of supplementary and detailed rulings were quickly rolled out following the new PRC IIT law and its implementation rule set forth in the second half year of 2018. How do you plan to deal with each specific IIT issue in this year without a clear understanding of detailed IIT rulings? Simply by surfing the internet and calling the tax hotline (12366) of your city? We believe this may not be enough.

The employers located outside China may navigate through a difficult path when seconding foreign employees to work in China where its IIT rulings are constantly changing recently. Normally speaking, immigration, tax, social security and foreign exchange control of host countries are major factors impacting an overseas secondment arrangement. The employer outside China must ensure the seconded individuals to start working in China timely, legally and their relevant secondment arrangement is compliant with local tax rulings as well as to ensure the overall secondment costs are not high. 

So, what’s the Chinese immigration rules look like now?

For short-term business travelers who would spend for no more than 90 days in China, they are required to apply for M visa rather than L visa. Unlike L visa granted for the purpose of social communications and visit, M visa is granted to those who would take business and trading activities in China. M visa is also called short-term work visa. For those who would spend for more than 90 days in China, they need to apply for Z visa (known as work visa). The good news is that expatriates can apply for Z visa from their home countries since year 2017. With these in mind, are you making the right application towards different types of visas for your seconded employees? 

For example, if your local Shanghai entity is going to hire a localized foreign employee who needs to move from another city to Shanghai after accepting your offer. How are you going to alter his work and residence permit to Shanghai? Does he/she need to go back to his home country to start a new round of immigration cycle? The answer is no. If you know how it works, it will definitely ease the administration burden and not delay his/her onboard date. 

What’s the current PRC IIT filing schedule under the new PRC IIT regulations?

For the first time, the new IIT law consolidated four different types of incomes, i.e. salaries and wages, independent incomes, incomes from author’s remuneration and royalty incomes received by PRC tax residents into one annual integrated income subject to aggregate IIT rate(s). While for the said incomes received by Non-PRC tax residents, they are still subject to PRC IIT under different income categories. Except for the said incomes, other incomes like operating incomes, interest incomes, dividend incomes, capital gains from rental income/property transfer and occasional incomes, are still subject to PRC IIT under different income categories.

The comprehensive income received by PRC tax residents is subject to PRC IIT on annual basis; If there is a withholding agent, the relevant PRC IIT should be calculated and remitted to in-charge tax authority by the withholding agent on monthly basis or upon a tax event occurs. If there is no withholding agent in China, these individuals are required to file PRC IIT returns by their own. An annual tax clearance should be performed within the period from March 1 to June 30 of the following year if a tax adjustment is required.

Unlike IIT filing is proceed jointly sometimes in other countries/jurisdiction, the PRC IIT return is filed individually no matter on monthly basis or when the annual one is submitted. As a reference from other foreign countries, i.e. SSN for US citizens and tax file number for Australian citizens, the Chinese identification number (for Chinese nationals), passport number (for foreign nationals), home visit card number (for Hong Kong and Macau residents) and travel permit number for Taiwan residents) are used as individual tax filing number when filing PRC IIT returns through tax on-line filing system. It becomes a unique and unchangeable number by which the Chinese tax bureau would easily supervise the tax filing status of each individual. 

How can you have your expatriates not being taxed based on their global income?

The new PRC IIT reform gave more lenient treatments to foreign employees working in China now. One key change is the residence rule changes from ‘Five-year rule’ to ‘Six-year rule’ effective from January 1, 2019. Disregard of how long they have resided in China prior to year 2019, 2019 is the first year of the ‘Six-year’ calculation cycle. The other change is about 'one-full year tax resident' rule. Foreign employees are considered as one-full year tax residents in China if their physical presence days in China exceed 183-day threshold in a calendar year. Keeping these changes in mind, will you review the current secondment arrangement for your employees and see if any changes needed? If they have to be seconded to China, are you aware of the potential double tax issues from improper secondment arrangement? It is suggested that you have a conversation with your employees to remedy their potential tax costs arising from secondment arrangement in China.

Are dual employment and split payroll still workable in China nowadays?

The dual employment and split payroll arrangements have been implemented in China for many years and never been forfeited thus far. It is not compliant if only China-paid portion to your foreign employees are reported for IIT calculation purposes in China. The correct way is to declare both portions in China as both of them constitute China-sourced income. For those who have regional/non-China duties and responsibilities, both of their incomes paid in and outside China should be reported prior to year 2019 and then, a time-apportionment calculation formula at tax level is available. Effective from year 2019, the time-apportionment calculation formula at income level is applied which is closer to the 'income exclusion' rules implemented in other countries/jurisdictions. 

Where should the foreign employees make statutory social security contributions while on secondment arrangement?

The China social security law requires foreign employees who legally work in China, i.e. obtaining work and residence permit, should make Chinese social security contributions. The contribution base and ratio vary from city to city. In practice, its implementation has not been strictly followed at city level. For example, no fine or penalty is imposed if the employers in Shanghai failed to make any contributions for their foreign employees working in Shanghai while making Chinese social security in Beijing is compulsory. For budgeting purpose, you have to understand different practices of social security contributions in different cities before assigning your foreign employees to China. 

Furthermore, you also need to know more about which countries have signed the ‘totalization agreement’ with each other to explore the opportunity to waive social security tax in host country. 

Most of seconded foreign employees prefer to continuously maintain their social security contributions in their home countries rather than host countries. An allocation of certain portion of their salary income could fulfil this purpose in home countries. That’s why dual employment and split payroll are always applicable in modern world, not only for non-RMB salary payments but also for social security maintenances.  

Can the home-country employer cross-charge relevant compensation cost to host-country employer in China?

Sometimes, the home-country employer would cross-charge relevant compensation cost to the host-country employer in China as the latter one is the economic and beneficial employer. Such remittance is made at the company level. Under the strict foreign exchange control implemented in China, theoretically speaking, it is feasible for cross-charge as long as relevant PRC IIT has been paid. However, due to the strict foreign exchange control implemented in China, there are a lot of processes you need to undergo with the in-charge tax bureau and the remitting bank especially when dealing with a backlog charge for past months or even past several years. Have you planned ahead on how to make cross charges at the beginning of global assignment and what’s the frequency?

Furthermore, at individual level, an individual may purchase or sell foreign currency up to USD 50,000 respectively per person per year. It is allowed to exceed such limit for salary income once its relevant PRC IIT has been paid. With the PRC IIT payment certificate, a foreign individual is permitted to convert after-tax salary from RMB to USD and remit out of China. 

Preferential tax treatments on Annual Bonus and Non-taxable Benefits?

In order to make a smooth transition from old IIT law to the new one, the preferential tax treatments on annual bonus and non-taxable benefits have been retained for another three years, i.e. from Jan 2019 to Dec 2021. Before the end of the transition period, annual performance bonus is still subject to the preferential tax treatment, that is, it is not required to be combined into annual comprehensive income and the applicable tax rate of which is determined by 1/12 of the total amount of annual bonus. If your foreign employees become one-full year tax residents in China and receive such annual bonus payments for this year in February 2020, the said treatment is still applicable. 

During the transitional period, foreign employees may opt to enjoy current tax exemption treatment (i.e. housing subsidy, language training subsidy and children education fees, home leave, meal and laundry) mentioned in the old tax Circular No. 35 issued in 1997 if certain conditions are met. If you have never heard of such exemption rules in the past, why don’t you best utilize it for the last chance for your foreign employees working in China?

In today and tomorrow’s constantly changing world, if you cannot adapt yourselves to face those uncertainties, you will bring some troubles, pains and extra costs to your organizations. We are compliant if we follow the tax rules. We can alleviate a lot of surprises and financial cost more than compliant if we closely catch up with the rapid tax rule updates. We should have a good process at the beginning of seconding someone to go abroad and during the process, we need to think fully, act quickly and finally achieve more.

Please feel free to contact me if you want to discuss any of the issues raised or need our tax services.

Spotlight on Africa - Michael McKinon - Crowe South Africa

African nations provide some of the greatest opportunities to multi-national organisations. With this opportunity comes complexity, and it is imperative that those managing employee mobility into and out of the region understand the specific differences. Through understanding these differences, mobility professionals can the increase speed of talent deployment and the return on investment for their organisations.

Why is Mobility in Africa growing?

Rich in natural resources, with a comparatively young workforce, booming populations and rapid urbanisation that is creating incredible mega cities, are all factors that are serving to accelerate more African nations to become powerhouses of the global economy.

These factors all contribute to growing economies and markets that are ever more important on the global stage. There is no doubt about it, Global Mobility in Africa is on the increase. Getting talent into and out of Africa has long been a feature of certain sectors (natural resources), but it is an increasingly important part of global mobility and workforce plans across more and more organisations. 


Africa is an amazing place. Geographically, its longest coastline is in Mozambique and it has the world’s largest hot desert the Sahara, in North Africa (3.3 million square miles), roughly the size of the USA. It also has the longest river, the Nile, which has a drainage basin in 11 countries and which stretches 6,650 kilometres from Burundi in the South to Egypt in the North. Africa is the second largest land mass and the second most populated land area on earth (6% of the earths surface and 20% of its land area).


The continent has 55 countries with an estimated population of almost 1.4 billion people (2017). This population is expected to reach three billion by 2050. Languages spoken in Africa include, amongst others, Arabic (by 170 million people), English (130 million), (Swahili 100 million), French (115 million), Portuguese (20 million) and (Spanish 10 million).


Africa is the world’s fourth largest oil producer (Nigeria produces 2.2 million barrels a day), and has 30% of the world’s natural resources. Africa still has the world’s largest remaining reserves of precious metals i.e. gold reserves 40%, cobalt 60% and platinum reserves 90%. Although not the world’s largest deposit, Zimbabwe has a sizeable store of lithium reserves.


The continent and its nations have vast potential and Africa is, as a result, very attractive from a business perspective. The movement of people as a result of this economic development across the continent is of particular interest to Global Mobility professionals.  

Together with Africa’s vast natural reserves and its economic acceleration, it is reasonable to foresee that there will be vast economic development across the region, which will bring yet more increased trade activity, industry and foreign investment. Trade and industry will naturally result in further increases in people movement, as skills and professional services are procured to satisfy needs.

What is different about mobility in Africa?

It’s certainly not easy to generalise across 55 countries, but some areas mobility specialists will want to keep sharp in focus could include:

Immigration: The immigration process can be less predictable than elsewhere and the timing and documentation requirements can be more case dependent. For this reason, it’s important to start this process as early as possible. In certain countries (for example in Nigeria and Ghana), quotas are in place and this can involve a separate process. Special rules may also apply to different types of employer, such as NGOs and Oil and Gas companies.

Cost: Employers are often surprised by the cost of mobility into Africa. Employees need different types of support and benefits with security, healthcare and housing being more important and costly than often expected. Assignment costings after liaison with benefits and destination services with specific local knowledge are must! 

Tax:It is essential that the concept of an assignee/expatriate be fully understood so that the tax and other pitfalls are not missed entirely. We often find that tax liabilities are missed completely, simply because nobody identified that the entity in question had in fact engaged the services of expatriates/ assignees. The major cause of this, in our experience, has been misunderstandings around what precisely constitutes tax residence in a particular tax jurisdiction.

The tax systems across Africa, with a few exceptions (the most notable being Angola) are all on a residence, as opposed to a source, basis of taxation.

How does residence based tax work?

In most of the countries in Africa the concept of ordinary residence forms the basis and cornerstone of tax residence. In South Africa (SA), for example, a person is tax resident if his/her ordinary residence is in SA (there are a number of indicative factors which indicate ordinary residence). If a person is physically present in SA, the South African ‘Physical Presence Test’ applies to that person. This test is a specific test that effectively counts the number of days present in SA. After having spent a definitive number of days in SA, regardless of what that person’s ordinary residence status is, that person will be tax resident in SA. 

The obvious danger here is that from the time of becoming a SA tax resident, that person’s worldwide income falls to be taxed in SA and the expatriate tax and/or benefits, which may have been applicable up to that point fall away and become non-applicable. This change over point is very often missed, thereby creating a multitude of complexities including penalties, interest and stress.

Each country in Africa has its own specific legislation and requirements concerning its ‘physical presence’ test. The SA presence test is an annual test over a multiple tax year period, and it effectively takes a number of years to become physically tax present in SA. Many countries in Africa have a much shorter time period for physical presence. In many cases, tax residence commences after an initial 183 days.  


The movement of employees into, across and out of Africa, as can be seen, clearly does not come without its complexities. We recommend that professional assistance and advice be obtained prior to the deployment of assignees into the region.

Michael Mckinon Michael McKinon

South Africa


Expatriate Tax Breaks - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

When I first entered the tax profession at the turn of the millennium, mobility tax was known as expatriate tax. That language has now moved on to mobility tax, but the concept of expatriate or expat tax breaks remains. In short, these are tax exemptions that apply in different countries to globally mobile employees (or expatriates). 

Awareness of these tax breaks is really important for those involved in, and managing mobility. There can be very substantial tax savings, often savings for the employer under tax equalisation, so it is vital they are not missed.

How big can the savings be?

They can be very valuable. This relates in part, to how tax equalisation works. 

Tax equalisation is an approach that seeks to neutralise differences in tax rates between countries to promote employee mobility. The employee usually agrees they will continue to pay the same level of tax as their home country. This may be through a hypothetical taxes deduction. In return, the employer then agrees that they will settle the actual taxes due. 

As the employer is settling the taxes due, the compensation becomes what is known as ‘net.’ Tax rates that apply on net compensation are considerably higher because paying the tax for an employee is in itself a benefit on which tax is then due. As a result, ‘grossed-up’ tax rates apply.


The top rate of income tax in the UK is 45%. If this has to be grossed up, then the tax rate becomes 89%. As a result, £89 of tax due by the employer would be saved if £100 of income/compensation can be removed from tax using an expatriate tax break.

If £50,000 of compensation is removed as a result of an expatriate tax break then £45,000 of income tax saved for the employer. If you have 10 employees to which this applied over 5 years, the savings could be £2.25 million! The savings could be even larger if social security was also taken into account.

Who do expatriate tax breaks apply to?

The rules differ from country to country so local tax expertise is a must. There are specific tax breaks that apply to globally mobile employees. There are also other tax breaks that were not designed for globally mobile employees, but they do apply to them. 

The tax breaks could apply to all forms of globally mobile employees including long term assignees, short term assignees, local hire employees, business travellers, Directors, commuters and those with regional or cross border roles. 

What kind of expatriate tax breaks are there? 

The rules and conditions really do vary location by location. Having reviewed the relevant rules across the world, I would suggest they fall into one of the following groups.

  1. Expatriate tax concessions. Talent attraction is key to a number of major economies. Expatriate tax concessions provide preferential lower tax rates and/or significant exemptions from tax. China, Spain, Italy, France, Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, Portugal, Ireland are just some examples. 

    There are usually specific requirements on the type of employee who can qualify, for how long and there may be procedural rules to consider (an application has to be made by a certain date in a certain way). 

  2. Housing is a large part of the overall cost of a globally mobile employee. Grossed-up for taxes it is even bigger. A number of countries have the concept of a temporary workplace or dual household cost. 

    There are tax breaks in a number of countries for accommodation based on short term assignments. UK, Germany, USA are just some examples. Where you see short term assignments, review if the housing, travel and subsistence will be exempt and under what conditions to ensure cost savings are not overlooked.

  3. Pensions are a key part of a globally mobile employee’s compensation. A number of countries provide ‘matching’ rules to exempt foreign pension earnings (employer contributions), if the plans broadly align with the local plans that qualify for local tax advantages.

  4. Non-host workdays/time apportionment calculations. A number of countries will not tax compensation relating to duties not performed in the host location, provided certain conditions are met. 

    Depending on the number of non-host workdays, this can be a significant tax saving. Examples include UK, Singapore, China, Hong Kong, France and India. This a key potential cost saving to explore when you know the employee will be working in more countries than just the proposed host location.

  5. Tax efficient benefits delivery. How particular compensation is delivered can change how it is taxed. Allowances generally tend to be less beneficial than reimbursements unless the allowances are paid in accordance with locally set tax-free limits. 

    Some benefits in some locations can result in lower taxable values (different to the actual cost) if the employer directly pays for or contracts for the benefit for example, accommodation, education etc. It’s important to check if this applies to the costlier benefits forming part of a globally mobile employee’s assignment package.

  6. Travel and home leave. Travel to and from the host country and home leave can benefit from tax exemptions in a number of countries. Care needs to be taken to understand the local specifics. For example, are there time limits, limitations to the number of trips, or do they have to be reimbursed rather than paid by the employee?

  7. Business traveller exemptions. Some countries will have tax short terms assignees or business travellers, but a number have specific short stay/business travel exemptions. A theme of around 60 days emerges in some locations, Ireland and the UK as two examples. There are also possible exemptions under tax treaties. (See previous Mobility Mondays on Double Tax Treaties).

  8. Relocation expenses. There are often exemptions for key relocation expenditure, shipping, temporary accommodation, replacement furnishings etc. A number of countries provide either specific reimbursement or lump sum allowances to provide these items are tax free or exempt.  

What complications are there?

Local expert tax assistance is vital because although there are overall themes, the rules and process are always country specific. As a result, it’s necessary to understand what procedural steps there are to consider, to ensure the tax breaks apply. There may also be particular claims that have to be made on an employee’s local income tax return.

In short term assignments, there can often be ongoing tax considerations in two countries. As a result, care needs to be taken not to focus exclusively on one location only. What is tax efficient in one country may lead to a worse impact in the other country so it’s important to keep an eye on the overall cross border tax position. 


Taxes due by employers for a globally mobile employee can be a very significant part of the overall cost of the assignment or work arrangement. Utilising expatriate tax breaks is key in optimising the overall costs. 

It’s important for mobility professionals to be aware of these tax breaks to ensure the business doesn’t bear unnecessary extra costs. Equally, it’s key to explore early on the requirements and procedural aspects with the support of local tax advisors so key set-up steps are not missed. 

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


US Nationals and Mobility - Gary Johnson, Crowe US

Today we cover US Nationals and Mobility. Without doubt, given the huge size of the US economy and the US talent pool, US Nationals are probably the most populous of all globally mobile employee nationalities. However, as a result of the US tax system, they can probably also be the most challenging from a tax and payroll perspective. The issues discussed here apply to mobile employees but, can also apply to US nationals who are hired on local employments too.

It’s important for those managing global mobility to understand why US Nationals are different and potentially more challenging so they, and the business can be prepared for additional complexity and plan ahead.

So what's the basic issue here?

The issue is one of multiple tax systems or double taxation, which is constantly at play. Almost all countries provide a temporary fix through which the link to their tax system can be temporarily broken. This results in tax and payroll for long term assignments becoming focused primarily on one country.

The US tax system for US Nationals and permanent residents is not like this. US taxes will always need to be considered. By US taxes, I mean US Federal taxes, and then on top of that we also have State and City taxes. US tax returns are usually required every year regardless of where the employee lives and works.

Apart from tax return filings, we also have:
  • Complex related bank account reporting.
  • The need to consider special tax filing extensions for those working overseas.
  • A tax payment system which requires thoughtful, detailed review by the usual payment date of 15 April, and probably also ahead of every 31 December. The 31 December date is vitally important because if the right amount of non-US taxes have not been paid, or accounted for through payroll, there can be some significant cash flow and reporting complexity issues
  • Exposure to what can be significant penalties and interest, if these obligations are not carefully managed

For those managing mobility and deploying or hiring US Nationals, they need to recognize that the employee will always have at least two tax systems to consider. As an employer, this results in more payroll, compensation and policy complexity to work through. 

Seeking tax advice in the US and the host country location prior to the move can prevent unpleasant surprises in both tax jurisdictions. Certain parts of the world have NIL or low income tax regimes, for example in Dubai. Mobilising a US National to work in Dubai doesn’t result in the tax free status it can for others. This is a key point.

Which employees are impacted?

Although this article references US Nationals, the issues discussed actually impact a wider population.

  • US citizens or US permanent residents (‘Green Card holders’ or GCH).
  • Individuals physically born in the US (citizens of birth) - even if neither parent is a US citizen.
  • Individuals born outside the US with at least one parent having US citizenship.
  • Dual nationals of the US and another country?

What are the requirements for US citizens/GCHs?

A. Tax Return Filings

In general, all US citizens and GCHs (even if they never lived in the US), are required to file US Federal income tax returns annually. They are required to report their worldwide gross income regardless of the source or location of the payment. With the new tax legislation introduced for the 2018 tax year, there is no minimum income threshold for filing.  

A US person is required to file a US income tax return even if the individual permanently lives in a foreign country, or temporarily resides in another country, and their wages are within the FEIE (foreign earned income exclusion). This filing requirement applies whether there is a US tax liability or not.

The FEIE allows the taxpayer to deduct $103,900 (for 2018 adjusted to inflation each year) of foreign earned wages from being taxed on the US Federal income tax return. However, in order to take this exclusion, a person must file a US income tax return.

B. Reporting Requirements - bank accounts

US citizens, US Tax residents and GCHs are required to disclose the highest balance(s) of their non-US financial accounts (i.e. foreign bank accounts) to the Department of the Treasury when the aggregate value of their bank account(s) exceeded US$ 10,000 during the calendar year.  

The Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (FBAR), also known as FinCEN Form 114 is required whether the individual owns the account (solely or jointly), as well as if you have signatory authority on accounts where you are not the account owner. This reporting applies to children as well as adults.

The signatory authority scenario can arise simply because of responsibilities the employee has as part of their role for their employer.

C. State/Local Income Taxes

Depending on the State and Local tax residency, the employee (and therefore the employer for payroll purposes) may also continue to be subject to state/local income tax while on assignment. Influencing factors include the duration of the international assignment and connections maintained in that state (active local bank accounts, voter registration as well as intentions to return to that state, etc.). Tax laws vary by state and local tax jurisdictions. A tax advisor can review the specific situation to determine if an employer will need to continue withholding state/local taxes while the employee is working overseas.

Why is this all important?

All US persons, regardless of where they are living, may be subject to tax filing requirements. These obligations can exist even if the individual has not obtained a US passport, or even set foot within the US. The US Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is aware that many US persons are not compliant with the filing of US Federal Tax Returns and the reporting of FBARs. In many cases, people are simply not aware of their US filing requirements, which places them at risk of being seriously delinquent in their US filing obligations with exposure to substantial penalties and interest.

As at least two tax systems will inevitably be at play, there will be additional complexity. Where this complexity is created as a direct result of a globally mobile work arrangement, or assignment, we see that these issues over time, will result in the employer becoming involved. Where the employee is tax equalised, it is in the employer’s best interests to manage US nationals carefully at the beginning for the following reasons.

  • Tax cash flow and double taxation is mitigated so there are lower overall costs.
  • Employees meet their filing tax filing obligations so penalties and interest do not arise.
  • Employees understand their “after tax” compensation and payment obligations.
  • US payroll reporting and deductions are accurate.
  • Related compensation and tax issues are managed carefully and ‘tax surprises’ are prevented.


It's important to understand that US nationals are different because their tax system is different. This means the taxation of their compensation and the related tax reporting requirements are also more complex. 

  • Find out nationalities of employees early, is the employee a US national or Green card holder?
  • Engage expert assistance early to establish the obligations for the employee, and for you as employers.
  • Where employees are tax equalised, focus on tax payments and payroll compliance before the 31 December date each year. We usually advise clients to start reviewing this as the final quarter of each year starts.
  • If those with US tax filing obligations will not be tax equalised (local hires for example), ensure they understand how the US and their host country tax system interact, and what that means for their net pay after taxes. Often this is not reviewed in sufficient detail and downstream tax surprises then arise. Inevitably, these are then often transferred to the employer to resolve.
  • Don’t expect deployments to NIL or low tax countries to automatically result in NIL or low taxes for US Nationals. Careful review is required.


gary johnson

Gary Johnson

Crowe LLP  



The 183 Day Rule: Do you really know it? - Claudia Haege, RWT Crowe 

Have you ever heard the following?

“I never stay more than 183 days in other countries. I do not have any tax obligations there.”

“Our employees never travel for more than one or two months to other countries. Taxes abroad? This is no issue for us.”

Often, the focus is on counting the working days in other countries. If below 183 days, then no taxes apply. However, this approach is incorrect. There is much more to the 183 day rule.

What is the main principle of the 183 day rule?

The rule relates to Double Taxation Treaties (DTTs). DTTs are Treaties determined between countries that exist to prevent double taxation. They can override domestic tax rules, and are important in the world of global mobility, as they provide a mechanism to prevent double taxation and simplify compliance. 

Where employees live in one country and work in another, the first thing to check is if a DTT between the two countries exists. If not, there is no 183 day rule to consider. Instead, national rules and domestic tax laws of the relevant countries apply. 

If a DTT exists, then it is necessary to first establish the country the individual is resident in under the DTT, this is known as a Treaty Residency. For people who are only tax resident in the home country and not in the country they work in, this is generally quite simple. In most cases individuals are treaty residents in their home country. Once the Treaty Residency has been established, the 183 day rule can be reviewed.


An employee lives with his family in Italy. During the week he works in Germany where he has a flat. He spend his weekends and holidays with his family in Italy. In January 2019, he was on a business trip in Italy for two weeks. In which state is the salary for this business trip taxable? The employee is tax resident both in Italy and Germany under domestic law. Under the Italian/German DTT they are treaty resident in Italy. As the employee worked in the same state in which they are treaty resident, the 183 day rule does not apply. The business trip is taxable in Italy.

What is required to enable the exemption under the 183 day rule?

Now, let’s assume individuals work in a state in which they are not treaty resident. In these cases, salary relating to working days in the other country is not taxable there, providing all of the following conditions are met: 

  1. The individual spends less than 183 days in the work state.
  2. The remuneration is paid by or on behalf of an employer, who is not a resident of the work state.
  3. The remuneration is not borne by a Permanent Establishment (PE) of the employer in the work state.

If all three conditions are met, the salary is not taxable in the country in which the work was performed. These are general rules. It is important to review the relevant DTT. General principles of the 183 days rule are similar but the detail can differ between DTTs. Let’s review the conditions individually.

1. The individuals stays less than 183 days in the state of work

Depending on the DTT, the 183 days can be in:

  • a calendar year 
  • the tax year of the country in which the individual works
  • any twelve month period.

The last option is quite tricky for HR departments. Manual counting of days is time consuming. Weekends and even holidays in the country of work have to be counted. 


An employee from Germany was on business trips in China during 2012 and 2013. In both years he stayed in China for 95 days (August to December 2012 and January to May 2013). The employer has no office and no PE in China. HR reviewed the China/Germany DTT in 2012 and 2013. They established that the salary referring to working days in China was taxable in Germany, because in both years, 183 days in China were not exceeded.

The same employee was on business trips in China in August to December 2018 (95 days) and again in January to May 2019. The employer still has no office or PE in China. Is the answer the same?

No. The Germany/China DTT has changed. Now, the 183 days may not be exceeded in any twelve month period. As the employee stayed in China for more than 183 days in the period August 2018 to May 2019, the salary relating to working days in China is taxable there.

As you can see, it’s important to always check the relevant and current DTT and not rely on experience with DTTs of other countries or from prior years.

2. The remuneration is paid by or on behalf of an employer, who is not a resident of the work state.

At first, this condition appears easy. If the employer has an office or establishment in the country of work then salary is taxable there, if it is borne there. Is that true?

No. In some countries an ‘economic employer’ approach applies. This approach reviews if the legal employer corresponds to the economic employer. In general terms, the economic employer is the entity into which the employee is organisationally integrated and, which bears the salary costs of the employee. Costs borne by the entity where employee is working usually results in taxes due in that country, but it’s not always that straightforward. 


From January 2018, an employee was posted from Italian HQ to a subsidiary in Germany for 5 months. His family stayed in Italy. During the week the employee lived in a flat in Germany. Although the employee worked for the German subsidiary, the salary was not charged to the German company, but was borne by the Italian HQ. The Italian HQ does not have a PE in Germany.

HR of the Italian HQ established that the employee stayed in Germany less than 183 days and had no German employer. During an audit of the German subsidiary, the auditor found out that the employee was organisationally integrated into the German subsidiary and, that the salary should have been charged to the German subsidiary in accordance with special corporate tax principles known as transfer pricing. Are there any consequences for taxation of the salary? 

Yes. The taxation of the salary now has to be reviewed on the basis that transfer pricing rules were met. Following transfer pricing rules, the German subsidiary should have borne the salary, with the consequence that the German subsidiary becomes the economic employer. Salary relating to working days in Germany is taxable there.

3. The remuneration is not borne by a PE of the employer in the state of work.

It is often thought that a PE is something that has to be formally or deliberately established or founded in another country. It is not. If special conditions are met, companies can have a PE in another country.


In November/December 2018 a technician, living in Germany, works for 8 weeks on an installation project of his employer in Poland. The project started in March 2018 and was scheduled to finish in February 2019. Due to illness of various team members, the project was finalised in April 2019.

The Poland/Germany DTT states an installation results in a PE if the duration of the installation exceeds 12 months (the reason is not relevant)

Although the reason for exceeding the 12 months period for the installation was the illness of employees, the German employer now has a PE in Poland. The salary relating to the working days in Poland was (respectively had to be) borne by the PE. The salary is now taxable in Poland.


The 183 day rule is not as easy as it may first seem. Understanding the commercial set up in a country and the specific recharging structure of a globally mobile employee is key. A detailed review of relevant legislation and facts can then follow and this is key to managing employee related risks.

It’s important to:

  • Check treaty residency.
  • Check relevant treaty rules for counting the 183 days.
  • Check the corporate set up in the state of work.
  • Check if the economic employer approach is applicable.
  • Check if there is a PE in the state of work.
claudia haege Claudia Haege

RWT Crowe


Trailing Compensation - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

Trailing compensation is an important area for those involved in employee mobility to understand. There are payroll reporting and payroll taxes obligations that cannot be met without the identification of trailing compensation. 

Those involved in the employee mobility process are well placed to identify and therefore ensure compliance and avoid related employee pitfalls.

What is trailing compensation?

Tax rules around the world generally need a trigger for a country to tax an employee’s compensation. One logical trigger is physical presence and tax residency - the employee lives in a particular country and should therefore pay tax there. 

Another trigger is that the compensation was earned when the person was taxable there (but is no longer resident there). If this compensation is then paid after leaving the country this is what’s known as 'trailing compensation' - trailing because it is paid after leaving but still relates back to a period of residence. 

The concept of trailing compensation can in theory apply to any type of compensation that meets the definition above but the usual examples are bonuses and incentives (such as shares awards). 

What are the complexities here?

The complexities arise in two main areas - payroll and compliance and then around tax impacts on the employee.


Payroll reporting and tax withholding in countries is often closely connected with whether or not the relevant compensation is taxable in that country. If the compensation is paid in another country (which could be the current payroll and employee location) then there can be a disconnect between where the payroll reporting and deductions have been done and where they should have been.

Example (UK to US but principles could apply to any countries).

  • Employee was in the UK throughout the calendar year 2018.
  • In January 2019 the employee is seconded to work in California, USA.
  • The employer has a financial year-end of 31 December and each year in March pays a bonus relating to that period. 
  • A bonus of $75k is paid in March 2019. The employee is in the US on US payroll so it’s paid there and US payroll makes US Federal and California tax deductions. This is now 'trailing compensation'.
  • Deductions totalling 40% (US Federal and California taxes are made. These total $30k so the employee received $45k net. 
  • The whole of the bonus is actually taxable in the UK as was earned in the UK but no taxes have been paid there.
  • In theory, the employer payroll should have reported the earnings in the UK and deducted UK payroll taxes. 

Payroll compliance in the UK is probably not correct. This is an area that can often be reviewed in payroll audits. It is bad enough that one case results in payroll taxes underpaid that result in employer penalties and interest. However, unless a process to systematically address the issues is implemented then many employees, in many countries with many awards over many years can quickly build up to a very significant global employer compliance risk and problem.

What does this mean for the employee?

Let’s continue with the example above. The issue we have here is the employee only received $45k after US taxes as $30k was deducted as US payroll taxes but UK taxes are also due.

As no tax was retained under UK payroll the UK taxes have to be paid through the tax return process. That UK tax is due on 31 January 2020 and now we have a problem. 

The UK tax due is at 40% or another further $30k - so by 31 January 2019 the employee has had to settle, or had deducted at source, $60k of a $75k bonus meaning they only have $15k left and have effectively paid a 80% global tax rate! This would usually result in a less than happy employee.

The bonus which originally most likely was intended as a motivational reward to the employee, recognising their contribution in 2018, now no doubt becomes a source of agitation and frustration.

Eventually the position will be corrected as the US tax return for 2019 is filed and claims to prevent double taxation are made. It could be well into late 2020 before a refund of US taxes is made to partially, or wholly, refund the US taxes withheld. 

Share options and longer term incentives

You can see that in the relatively simple example above we have compliance and employee issues in two counties that can carry on for well over a year after the payment date of the bonus. 

Share options and share awards can have a much longer award life. It’s not that unusual that these kind of awards have three or even five year lifespans. Consequently, if an employee has worked in three or more countries during the life of the award then on the exercise of the options, or the transfer of any shares to the employee, there may well be country employee payroll tax reporting and deduction obligations in three countries. This is a real challenge for the employer to analyse. In addition, the employee has to somehow understand how this all impacts their global tax rate and tax payment timings and income tax return reporting’s in respect of the shares. 

So what are the solutions?

Trailing compensation is commonly an area for fiscal authority focus in payroll audits. It is so because it is a complex area and is not easy to ensure compliance. You can see from the above example that the issue can lead to a lot of extra complexity for the employee too. 

So what can be done to manage the compliance and mitigate complexity for employees?

  • First and foremost, those in reward, compensation and benefits and mobility must build a process through which to identify potentially impacted employees.
  • A historical record of employee movements across borders is simply a must to address the challenges. The records should include secondees and assignees but also local to local transfers too. 
  • Work with cross border tax experts and establish how trailing compensation needs to be reported and subjected to payroll taxes in different countries so that the organisation is compliant with payroll obligations.
  • Simulate the impact on impacted employees so you can understand and communicate to employees what to expect. The impact isn’t always negative from an employee perspective - depending on the countries and tax rules involved it could result in lower taxes than when compared to simply living and working in one country alone.
  • Consider if any of the tax consequences require some kind of policy support or related considerations. For example, an employee could have been subject to 25% tax on a share award that has taken three years to mature. That same award may be taxable at 45% directly as a result of an assignment or secondment initiated by the employer. The employer may now want to consider if they will protect the employee against the increase. Tax equalisation or tax protection may need to be considered.
  • Expect payroll processing to become more complex and provide support. Trailing compensation can result in part or whole of awards or payments needing to be taxed and reported in two or more countries. This is usually non-standard processing for payrolls and extra lead times and support are most likely required.


Trailing compensation is a potentially complex area from a process and technical perspective that has clear implications for employer compliance and employee reward. 

Identification of the relevant cases is the starting point. Those involved in global mobility play a key role in identification and therefore the ability of the organisation to have the right resultant processes. 

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom


Tax Equalisation Policies - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

Alongside the assignment policy, the tax equalisation policy (the documentation of the tax equalisation approach) is a key enabler of employee mobility. The policy usually sits as part of the suite of Reward or Compensation and Benefits policies in an organisation although the Tax Department too can be an owner.

As tax equalisation involves the management taxes due by the company the policy plays a significant role in the financial and compliance management aspects of a mobility programme. These policies drive compensation entitlements and reward and, as such, heavily impact the employee experience too. Given this, it is essential for those involved in global mobility to understand these policies and identify where they aren’t working or require development.

Not all organisations will have a policy in place. This article may prompt thoughts on whether your organisation needs one.

Refresher – what is tax equalisation again?

Fundamental to understanding tax equalisation policies is the concept of tax equalisation. Tax rates and rules between countries differ. As employees become globally mobile they can trigger taxes in other countries. As they do this, two things happen:

  • The overall burden of taxes changes. The overall tax rate can go up so the employee is worse off.
  • The administration of taxes gets much more complex. New tax filings are required, taxes and payroll are due at the same time in two or more countries and there is a need to understand how the taxes paid in one country interact with taxes due in the other.

To manage this complexity companies often adopt the philosophy of tax equalisation which ensures that the employee remains responsible for broadly the same burden of taxes as if the employee carried on working only in their home country.

A number of policy approaches and practical details are required to underpin this approach and those items are usually found in a tax equalisation policy. The policy helps take the philosophical and conceptual to the practical.

What is in a tax equalisation policy?

The policy is there to support the delivery of a tax equalisation approach. It should answer important practical questions and provide guidance to negotiate ambiguity. These are really key because tax equalisation creates new deliverables, obligations and responsibilities. Each of these requires clear inputs and guidance on a number of important aspects.

As examples:

  • Hypothetical tax calculations need to be produced. What gets taken into account?
  • Tax Returns have to be prepared. Who should prepare the tax returns and how should personal income in the host country be treated – who pays the tax due, company or assignee?
  • Interest and penalties may be due if certain deadlines are not met. Who is liable for these costs?

Tax equalisation approaches very often require the appointment of objective tax advisors who will need detailed guidance on a number of aspects. Tax is a technical issue and the policy usually has to get into some detail around this. For this reason, tax equalisation policies are often closely developed and maintained with external specialist mobility tax advisor support.

To whom does a tax equalisation policy apply?

Tax equalisation policies can apply to any employee group where cross border taxation is an issue. This means it applies to short term and long term assignments but also to commuters and business travellers.

I've also seen tax equalisation policies, or frameworks at least, developed for regional roles and board members where the seniority of roles results in taxation in more than one country.

Tax equalisation approaches can even apply in the same country, the US for example has different tax rates in different states and cities. If at the request of the business the employee has to travel to new cities or states these can materially impact their personal tax liability and with it the payroll obligations of the employer. Some organisations will therefore have a tax equalisation policy of some sort to cater for this State to State scenario.

How detailed or comprehensive should a policy be?

This is a really key point because it really does depend on the business and the size and scale of employee mobility.

It’s really important to note that the level of detail that applies in different organisations and to different groups can differ. This is closely connected with the culture of an organisation as well the level of detail that is practically required.

A lack of detail isn’t necessarily a bad thing. High level guiding principles can be interpreted and applied to new situations. Tax rules are after all constantly changing and updating and maintaining a policy that handles every change can be really cumbersome.

On other hand, detail is generally desirable as the number of employees who are tax equalised increases. The volume of deliverables under the policy for example hypothetical tax calculations, tax returns and tax equalisation calculations can quickly grow. This can be across multiple countries and tax systems. In these scenarios more detail is essential otherwise mobility professionals will spend a lot of time on interpretation and administration. Documenting and agreeing global and local tax positions under the policy can save a lot of time and deliver a consistent employee experience.

What are some main areas covered in a policy?

As covered above, the level of detail is usually driven by the corporate culture and approach of an organisation along with the size and scale of the employee population to whom tax equalisation applies. That said, there are some common items it is useful to include. 

Below are 10 key areas that are often necessary to include.

  1. Definitions: Tax equalisation policy and process can involve the usage of a number of technical compensation and tax related terms. It is a good idea to define these so that all are clear on their meaning.
  2. Scope and timing: Which sort of taxes does tax equalisation apply to? National, Federal, State, Canton, City? What about social security taxes? When will tax equalisation apply from and to?
  3. General principles: Some form of wording that describes the high level purpose of the tax equalisation approach. This is usually that the employee should be no better or worse off from a tax and social security perspective on company income when compared to the liability on a stay at home basis but there are company specific nuances.
  4. Process summary: The key steps (deliverables) along the tax equalisation cycle. For example these can include hypothetical tax calculations, payroll deductions, tax briefings, social security certificates of coverage, tax returns, tax allocation calculations and year-end tax equalisation reconciliations.
  5. Responsibilities: Statements that set out what responsibilities and obligations fall on the employee, the employer and any third party providers (tax advisors etc.
  6. Compensation subject to equalisation: clarification on the different types of income tax are part of the tax equalisation process – salary, bonus, share incentives, pre- assignment bonuses or awards etc.?
  7. Personal income: Clarification on how personal (non-company) is dealt with under the policy.
  8. Tax refunds and reimbursements: Sets out the basis under which the company may settle taxes in respect of the employee. Usually, there is a statement that refunds or returns tax or reductions in tax liabilities that relate to company paid taxes to the employer.
  9. End of assignment: How will the policy work or apply after the end of the assignment. This is a complicated area as some compensation can be paid after the end of the formal assignment but relate back to the tax equalised period (bonus, share incentives)
  10. Global and local tax positions: How will tax returns be prepared? How will company and non-company income have tax exemptions allocated to them? What tax deductions will be recognised for the purposes of calculating hypothetical taxes? 

It is worth noting that every £,$,€ that is recognised as a deduction for hypothetical taxes directly increases the tax liability for the employer. The policy plays a key role in tax cost management,


A tax equalisation policy is key in enabling employee mobility in a compliant and cost effective way. Often the global mobility professional is in situations where they have to explain how their company approach works either to the business or to employees. An understanding of the approach is vital to help the business manage risk and cost and ensure the employee experience from a compensation and reward is equitable and holds no surprises.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom




Permanent Establishments - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

Perhaps of all the ‘tax’ compliance related risks those involved in mobility come across the Permanent Establishment (PE) risk is maybe the least well understood. This article should help in changing that. 

For a number of reasons, PEs are ever more in focus at tax authorities at local and international levels and therefore represent a high risk. In addition, more informal and fluid employee mobility that is a feature of the times now can result in more PE risk.

Those involved in global mobility can play a key role in the identification of the issue. As such, a high level understanding is key to enable global mobility professionals to assist organisations in the successful management of related risks.


Before we get into what PEs are let’s look at the backdrop against which they may appear.

Those involved in employee mobility will be well aware that globally mobile employees can result in changes to tax related compliance obligations for the employees and for the organisation. As examples, employees may have changing or new tax filing and payment obligations and the organisation itself may have new and more complex payroll deduction and reporting requirements. 

Obligations for the employer organisation can exist in the home and host location organisations. Although the home and host organisations or entities may well belong to the same global group they are usually regarded as being independent by tax authorities. These entities have obligations of their own to tax authorities under corporate taxes. Just as employees can trigger tax implications through their presence or residency in a country so can these corporate entities.

The PE issue relates to the home employer organisation. In the context of global mobility it is a taxable presence of the home employer (for corporate taxes) in the host country caused by the presence and activity of the employee or a group of employees over time.

What types of employee mobility are highest risk?

In theory, any kind of employee mobility scenario can give rise to a PE risk in the host country.

That said, a lower risk scenario is where an employee is sent from one entity (home entity) on a formally documented secondment/assignment to the host entity and all the duties that then follow are performed for the host entity only. Not all employee mobility fits this scenario. As a result, the follow types are among those that require attention.

  • Employees working in a country where the employer and/or group has no corporate presence at all.
  • Business visitors.
  • Multi country or regional roles.
  • Senior executives or management who perform duties outside the country in which their employer or organisation is desired to have a corporate presence.
  • Commuter roles.
  • Assignees/secondees who do not work exclusively for the host entity alone.
  • Employees who work from home offices, or other (none office) places of work.

What are the implications of a PE?

Unexpected costs, management time and effort and reputational risk can follow when employees create a taxable presence of the home employing company in the host country.

Where this occurs, the employing company (home employer) can (unknowingly) become liable to foreign corporate taxes in respect of the profits that relate to the overseas activity. In addition, foreign tax filings can be triggered and require attention.

Unfamiliarity with local tax law and compliance requirements in the foreign country can make this a difficult process to manage (or to even identify in the first place).

The cost of non-compliance with corporate related tax obligations in the foreign country can become significant with the addition of interest on unpaid tax and related penalties. These costs can quickly rise again if there are a number of years or even multiple countries involved. As well the tax dues, corporate taxes related registrations, tax returns and other filings can also be required.

Alongside considerable management time and energy that is then required to put things right there can also considerable professional advisor costs related to bringing the compliance up to date. At the risk of stating the obvious, this can all come as a nasty and costly surprise to the business.

What gives rise to a foreign taxable presence?

The existence, or not, of a PE in a foreign country is often difficult to determine as the rules are complex and their interpretation is frequently subjective.

Consideration should be given to the risk of creating a foreign taxable presence whenever employees are globally mobile. Issues to be considered should include:

  • What activities the employees will be performing and in respect of whom whilst working abroad?
  • What is the nature and location of the “operational base” where the work will be performed?
  • What management authority or capacity do the employees hold?
  • How many employees are being sent abroad to work on a particular project or over a period of time?
  • How long will they be “in territory” individually but also collectively?
  • How are employees representing themselves on business cards and letterheads, what addresses do they use and which employer appears on them?

Situations which may give rise to a taxable presence in a host country when employees are globally mobile include:

  • The creation of an office (even at the customer site) to service local customers or clients.
  • The creation of a manufacturing or servicing facility.
  • Sending engineers to service / repair / install a customer’s production facility over a period of time.
  • Conducting marketing research / gathering market intelligence for third party clients.
  • A common scenario which can potentially give rise to a foreign taxable presence arises where a salesman or sales team has the ability to conclude sales contracts in a foreign country.

The phrase “the ability to conclude sales contracts” is often difficult to interpret. The concept of ‘concluding’ in this context is not limited to the act of just physically signing a contract but also includes the negotiation of contract terms leading up to the formal signature. This can be the case even where the contract is referred back to Head Office for ‘rubber stamping.’

If a foreign taxable presence is created, it will then be necessary to determine the profits on which corporate tax is payable in the foreign country. 

In recent years, many countries have developed steps to counter international tax avoidance which will make it more difficult to avoid the existence of a taxable presence in a foreign country.


PE isn’t always the best understood risk in the area of employee mobility – a high level understanding, however, is a must.

Those involved in global mobility are often in a unique position to spot that the issue may exist in a particular work arrangement or project. Once identified, close collaboration is required with the Finance and/or Tax department of the organisation to understand how to assess and best manage.

Proactive management is key. With careful review and planning, it can be possible to avoid a PE in a particular country through reviewing what duties are performed and not performed there. Equally, if a PE is to be created then getting ahead to enable timely compliance can bring with it much reduced costs and management attention than when compared to a non-compliant scenario.

Three key steps to keep front of mind:

  • Identify and monitor relevant employee staff visits and their duration.
  • Identify the nature of the activity which is to be undertaken abroad.
  • Assess whether there is a risk of creating a foreign taxable presence and whether this can be mitigated or proactively managed for compliance.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom




Net to Gross Calculation - Gerardo Mendoza, Crowe - Mexico

Net to gross calculations are often referred to when mobility interfaces with Finance and/or payroll. 

As these terms are not part of everyday language there can be a bit of mystery around them. That said, they are important concepts to understand to enable the business to make the right provision or accrual for the costs of globally mobile employees. After all, nobody likes cost surprises. Equally, most tax authorities require reporting through payroll or tax returns of the gross compensation. So for compliance it’s important to know the gross amount.

Net to gross calculations are also important from a compensation and benefits perspective. 


Critical to understanding this area are some crucial terms - and net Gross is the amount of pay before taxes are deducted. Net is what's left after taxes are applied/deducted. From a finance perspective the gross is the cost to the business and the number that probably needs to be reflected in payroll reporting.


When organisations look at compensation in the context of employee mobility two key concepts have to be thought through.

  • The first is what do we pay the employee - what is the right salary?
  • The second is what is the impact of tax changes between countries and how does that impact what the employee would really receive after taxes?

As a result of thinking through these concepts organisations often decide that the employee should receive a net pay entitlement. In other words, a certain amount of compensation after taxes (a net pay scheme).

Net pay schemes

The net to gross calculation is a sort of backwards tax calculation.

Rather than starting with gross pay and deducting taxes, the starting point here is the net pay. For example an organisation may establish the employee should receive EUR 4,000 a month after taxes. To process the payroll and understand the real cost they need to understand real gross compensation. The net to gross calculation establishes what gross would be needed to deliver the EUR 4,000. This could look as follows:


Gross compensation

Income tax

Social Security

Net compensation


- 4



The business and the payroll now understands the amount to report and accrue for costs is 10.

These calculations are not straightforward and usually require some expert support because (amongst other things):

  • The payroll system can’t always do this backwards calculation from a capability perspective. Globally mobile employees can be a very important employee subset but are usually small in number and payroll is set up for the rest, the vast majority of the employees who are paid gross.
  • Equally, the local tax system may have a number of deductions, exemptions or tax reliefs that have to be applied and these can often vary at an individual level. The tax residency and status of the individual has to be determined.
  • The calculation involves 'grossing up'. As the taxes due are actually payable by the employer, they then constitute further compensation on which tax is then due - the tax on the tax conundrum.
  • Often, the taxes due are not due just in one country and are not just of one sort (social security taxes as well as income taxes may apply.


Alongside cash globally mobile employees often also receive benefits such housing, medical, education and allowances. They may also continue to participate in pensions etc. in their home country. These benefits may also be taxable in the new country in which they are working so it is necessary to understand what the true cost of delivering these benefits actually is (again, so that right cost accrual can be made). Here again, a net to gross calculation can be prepared to understand the total cost to the employer (inclusive of taxes).

Employees don't expect to pay the tax on assignment benefits or pay tax on compensation that is not taxable in their home location but is in the host. This extra cost usually passes to the employer.

Target nets

A final common use of net to gross calculations can be in the compensation and benefits area. It can be relevant where employees are moving on a local to local basis. In these examples, the employer or employee has a target net in mind (after taxes) and needs to understand what the gross should be. Again, it’s a sort of backwards calculation.

The different between this and net pay schemes (above) is that no grossing-up is needed as the employee is paying the taxes due themselves.


Net to gross calculations play an important role in cost management and compliance in relation to globally mobile employees.

They can be technically difficult to perform but once done provide important management cost information for the business.

These calculations can be an important input and part of assignment costings which can be used to get approval for an assignment to go ahead from management.

The net to gross calculation establishes which compensation or benefits items are taxable and which are not. This leads to good questions like can similar value to the employee be delivered in a way that isn’t taxable to the employee or perhaps taxable in a more favourable way. This is the starting of tax planning and can be a real game changer from an assignment cost reduction perspective.

Gerardo Mendoza
Gerardo Mendoza
Crowe, Mexico


Business Travellers - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

Business travellers are a real hot topic in Global Mobility, HR and Tax. As it is a hot topic, it is essential that those involved in employee mobility understand the key issues. 

Why is knowledge of this area important?

The business will often turn to those handling employee mobility to lead and guide them on how to manage business travellers (whether or not they are formally part of their remit). This is because key to successfully managing the issues is the technical knowledge, process and policy expertise that supports general employee mobility. Those who handle employee mobility may want to consider proactively volunteering to define and co-develop how to manage business travellers. This way, they get to influence and co-design the process and ensure it does not create unnecessary extra process or workloads. 

What are business travellers?

Organisations will have employees who are on assignments, secondments or other forms of structured employee mobility such as commuters or local transfers. The structure that supports these moves will usually result in some compliance steps that assess and manage immigration, payroll, social security and tax obligations. Typically, for these moves someone in the organisation with the right experience and the right knowledge is involved. Business travellers can be very different.

Business travellers are the informal employee mobility in an organisation. This travel happens organically as and when the business requires it. It can range from a single business trip to an ongoing project in a new location or even a change in role where the employee is regularly required to work elsewhere (for example a regional role or an appointment to a Board in another country). These cases are not always managed by those managing the formal mobility in an organisation so this creates real risks for the business.

I would say business travel risks also exist in formal mobility scenarios. I call this the third country workday scenario. For example, say there is an assignees who has been sent to work from the U.K. to South Africa. Due to an opportunity or project the assignee starts to spend time working in Kenya. Kenya is a third country and care is needed to check what compliance obligations there may be there because the structured focus may very well be only on the home and host (UK and South Africa).

Why are business travellers a topical issue?

This is partially because there is a real focus on this area in payroll audits - a trend that is rapidly gaining momentum globally. Another reason it's topical is because tax and fiscal authority audits are leading to actual fines and reputational damage. Some well-known organisations have been fined in this area in a number of countries.

New ways of working and technology are enabling work anywhere options. With such flexibility comes added risk as where work is physically performed can get disconnected from the country of employment and payroll.

What obligations and risks are associated with business travellers?

This could easily be a very long list. Overall, it is all about cost, compliance and business disruption.

I usually think about the considerations in three broad buckets. 

Tax matters: Is payroll reporting required? Where is social security due - how can dual liabilities be avoided? What tax filings does the employee have to file? Is the employee giving rise to a presence in the other country that could trigger corporate or sales tax obligations? Are business travel and accommodation costs taxable - are there surprise extra costs here?

Legal matters: Does the employee hold the right work permission/ visa to legally work in the new location? Are there any reporting, registration, notification or compensation payment obligations under local rules and the Posted Worker Directive in Europe? Can the employee acquire rights under local labour law - how can this be mitigated?

Operations, welfare and wellbeing: What additional payroll processing and reporting complexity is there - can the systems cope? What disruption to clients and customers and ultimately the business is there if the employee is refused entry or denied departure? Can you quickly identify where employees are in the case of an emergency? Do you know the impact continuous and extended business travel is having on employee wellbeing and welfare?

Why are business travellers challenging?

Technical issues often need bespoke analysis at an individual level across areas like immigration, tax, payroll, tax, employment law and social security. The following are also real hurdles to cross;

Fluidity: The challenge around managing business traveller risks is strongly connected to the fluid nature of those undertaking business travel. A business trip or two can quickly become an extended work period that triggers compliance. If you don’t have reliable start and end dates how you can assess compliance? How do you know a person actually came back and when? There could also be gaps between trips but to assess compliance you have to count all previous trips - how do you get this data?

Ownership: Organisations do not always find the business traveller issue drops nicely into a single function or team remit. This means that cross function communication and collaboration is key to identify owners and stakeholders. This can be a complex and time consuming process. 

Reactive approaches: I often hear that organisations don’t feel action is needed because nothing has gone wrong. I would always add ‘...yet’ on the end. The mindset should be around proactively preventing issues rather than mining for issues or waiting to fix them once they’ve occurred. This is a real issue because securing spend to invest in managing the issue is not easy if nothing has ever actually gone wrong...yet. 

Data and process: Managing the issues will often have dependencies on good, clean and reliable travel data, collaborative travel providers and systems and good process across jurisdictions. This simply isn’t how the status quo may be - so taking action becomes difficult whilst risk mounts up. 


Awareness of the issues and recognition of them is a key first step to managing business traveller risks. Those managing mobility manage similar risks in more structured scenarios so have the expertise to be real leaders in this area and shape how organisations respond.

Some key actions could be:

  • size the issue - how prevalent is it - what’s at stake? Does the risk indicate action is required?
  • clarify ownership- who needs to be involved and who needs to be consulted? Most importantly, who will drive it?
  • review process and technical solutions - what technology and external support is needed? Understand total costs of ownership. There are lot of business traveller tracking tools on the market. Recognise that the cost and effort needed in implementing a system is part of the overall investment or annual cost. A system may now identify new compliance requirements - tax returns, payroll set ups, certificates of coverage, immigration applications and so on. It's important to understand and factor in these downstream costs too so the business has the complete picture in terms of cost and resource requirements.

Dinesh Jangra

Crowe LLP
United Kingdom




Shadow Payroll - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

Shadow payrolls are a key concept for those involved in mobility to become familiar and comfortable with.

They are an essential mechanism through which payroll compliance is delivered. An understanding of why they are used is essential so that those managing mobility can partner with the business to ensure it remains compliant and explain how process will work.

Increasingly, fiscal authorities are very well aware that globally mobile employees receive compensation from a number of sources (which makes compliance more complex) so this is often an area of specific scrutiny in payroll audits.

When might a shadow payroll be required?

The scenario that gives rise to a shadow payroll is usually as follows:

  •  An employee is working in, or is assigned to a new country or even state.
  • They continue to be paid, ‘on payroll', in their home location. However, a payroll obligation for the employer is triggered in the new country or location.
  • A solution is now needed to ensure the employer can meet its obligations in the new location - that solution is usually shadow payroll.

What is a shadow payroll?

Essential to understanding what shadow payrolls are is reflecting upon what role traditional payrolls perform first. A payroll probably performs five key functions:

  1. Pays the employee money into their nominated bank account
  2. Determines and deducts tax and social security amounts due by the employee
  3. Determines the employer payroll taxes due - for example employer social security
  4. Reports wages, taxes and social security to the local tax/ fiscal authority - employer then pays these over
  5. Provides a mechanism to maintain participation in certain benefits (for example - pension).

A shadow payroll is used in a country where there are payroll obligations (B, C and D above) but either no payment is made locally or only part of the overall payment to the employee is made locally. Often no payment is made so is for this reason the terminology 'shadow' is used, it’s not a real payroll as no payment is made but tax reporting and payroll taxes compliance is delivered. Essentially what has happened is we’ve recognised that the physical payment (A above) and the compliance aspects (B,C,D) can be split.

What should shadow payroll include?

Critical to getting the shadow payroll right is the visibility and flow of global compensation. Globally mobile employees could be being paid by their employer in two countries and often other compensation items are provided by or delivered through third parties (relocation and destination services providers).

The starting point for shadow payroll should be all global compensation (regardless of who paid it and where) and then based on the individual employee tax status some or all of those items may be subject to tax and social security deductions, taxes and reporting.

Shadow payroll delivery can be a highly complex area of mobility support because it requires optimised compensation data flows, cross border tax technical knowledge but also because it is payroll there are often tight deadlines to regularly meet. Often, this support is outsourced by organisations.

The shadow payroll is required only in the host country, right?

I'd love to say it was that simple but the reality is the answer is it is probably required in both locations.

The shadow payroll in the host would be the 'new' payroll but some 'shadow' type adjustments are probably required in the home country too. Let me explain using an example:

  • The overall compensation package for a globally mobile employee is usually higher than the normal stay at home compensation. For example extra allowances and benefits may being delivered.
  • These allowances and benefits may be being paid elsewhere (so not through the home payroll). However, this extra compensation is still subject to employer and employee social taxes and/or wage taxes.
  • If the overall package was say US$200k but only US$120k was being paid through the home payroll then the additional US$80k now needs to be reflected for compliance through the home payroll.

Complications and challenges

To be truly compliant, there is often a need to provide the overall global compensation picture to each country each month to calculate the right payroll taxes due.

The problem is the payroll taxes themselves can actually constitute compensation so there now has to be some method to connect the home and host payrolls. For example the payroll taxes due in host on the shadow payroll are subject to home country social security. This can be a real challenge purely from a data and timing perspective.

Another challenge is the multiple of different sources of compensation -home and host payrolls, home and host expenses and benefits, relocation and destinations services. There has to be a good process to globally accumulate all of this compensation to enable the correct reporting.

Once collated, the compensation has to then be analysed to check what items are subject to tax and social security deductions, taxes and reporting. Often, the answer here is very much dependent on the country combination and the individual tax status of the employee.

I won't go into detail on the next challenge which is grossing up of compensation. This effectively means the shadow payroll has to be operated on basis that the employee is on a net pay scheme so the payroll has to perform net to gross calculations. Often I find this is not a calculation the payroll system was designed for. Therefore, the can be significant complexity at the payroll operational level too. 


Shadow payrolls play a very important role in enabling employers to be globally compliant in respect of mobile employees.

Critical success factors to facilitate a good process that doesn't become overly expensive or burdensome are technical know-how, data and process management. If these areas are not addressed, compliance can be a challenge and the burden in terms of workloads for Mobility, HR and Tax professionals can quickly reach unexpected and undesired levels.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom 



Double Tax Treaties - Sivakumar Saravan, Crowe - Singapore  

Those managing and involved in global mobility will be well aware that employees working in new locations result in changes to compliance obligations for both the employee and the employer. Understanding these changes and managing them is key in managing mobility related risk. Double tax treaties play a role in establishing some criteria that can reduce the complexity and compliance obligations in short term secondments and assignments. As such, an understanding of how they work at a high level is essential. Double taxation treaties are often referred to as Double taxation agreements and tax advisors often also refer to them as DTAs and DTTs. 


A Double Tax Treaty is essentially an agreement between two countries which has an overall goal to avoid taxation of the same income twice (double taxation). Double taxation would be an issue for employees since it could significantly alter their net pay after tax and result in significant extra costs for employers.  These agreements are also commonly referred to as ‘double tax agreements’ or simply ‘tax treaties’.

Each country has their own tax system and their own tax rules (domestic rules). Tax Treaties sit across the top of these domestic rules and can override them. In addition to eliminating double taxation, tax treaties also facilitate the exchange of information between tax authorities and provide the framework to prevent tax evasion and the resolution of disputes between countries (for example - which country should tax which income or gains when both technically can do so under their domestic rules). 

To eliminate double taxation, tax treaties provide different rules for different types of income and receipts such as capital gains. They provide for the allocation of taxing rights between countries. However, tax treaties do not create a tax liability if under the domestic tax law of a country a liability does not exist. 

Countries normally use model tax treaties as a framework for negotiating, concluding and revising tax treaties. A model tax treaty is provided by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The model tax treaty is widely used in negotiations by both member and non-member OECD countries. 

How are Double Tax Treaties used in practice?

The countries of the world do not have a uniform tax system. For example, some countries tax income that relates to that country and others tax all income, regardless of where it arises.

As a result, you can have employees who are resident in the country in which they are employed (country 1) but are required to travel to other countries (country 2) to perform work. Those duties in the other country could then be taxable there. The result, there can be taxation on the same income in both countries. 

Where there is a tax treaty between the two countries this double taxation could be eliminated provided certain conditions are met. This can result in no income tax in country 2. This is normally only applicable in the course of short periods of work such as projects. Where income tax in country 2 can’t be eliminated (because the conditions are not met) then the same treaties can provide the basis for a tax credit - effectively meaning tax is not paid on the same income twice. 

Countries usually need to connect an individual to its tax system before it can tax them - otherwise everyone would be taxable everywhere. Tax residency is usually a key connecting factor - others include nationality or immigration status (as is used by the United States). In cross-border employment scenarios it is not that uncommon that an employee will become resident in two countries. When this happens it is necessary to apply residency tie-breaker rules to determine where the individual is resident in order to apply the provisions of the tax treaty.


Global mobility professionals and those involved in managing cross border employees work require a high level understanding of tax treaties. The rules in those treaties can simplify or reduce compliance in situations where employees are working for a relatively short period in other countries for example less than 183 days (although there are other conditions to be met and exceptions such as Directors and Economic Employers to check). 

The key point when managing cross border employees is to work with the business to highlight if managing the employees’ presence in a country as well as the finance set up (which country bears the costs for the employee) can reduce compliance and related costs that often the business would not have built into the overall project.

Sivakumar saravan
Sivakumar Saravan

Crowe, Singapore



Non-resident directors - Mark Verbeek, Crowe Spark - Brussels

Human Resources and Mobility professionals can come across employees who have Directorships. These types of employees can very often give rise to different kinds of compliance and reporting obligations. As these employees are often senior, it’s all the more critical to identify payroll and reporting obligations early. The very nature of their roles means their appointments are matters of public record and can be easily uncovered by fiscal and tax authorities. This makes them a particularly risky group of employees. 


Often global and multinational groups and businesses operating all over the world, will have local companies or entities in different countries. It is not uncommon that these local entities then have Directors who do not live that country - Non Resident Directors. These Directors are appointed either because HQ wants to retain some oversight and operational control or because they have specific skills and knowledge that are crucial to the successful operation of the business locally.


The key thing here is that exemptions that may apply for normal employees may not work. The commonly known 183 days rule doesn’t always stop payroll or taxation for Directors. Here is why. The basic principle is simple and laid down in Article 16 of the OECD Model Tax Convention (that regulates and influences how countries tax) stating that:

"Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State."

This means that a director is taxed in the country where the company for whom he performs his Directors duties is situated. Physical presence in that country (by the Director) may not even be required.

In practice however the practical application of the relevant rules vary from this simple starting point. These variations can result from:

  • the nature or legal form of the companies concerned
  • the nature of the duties/ roles exercised: directors, liquidators, persons with ‘similar functions’, leading functions of day to day management or of a commercial, technical or financial nature,
  • whether the Director is treated as employed or self-employed under local rules.

In respect of the final point, there is often a misconception that someone who deals with the day-to-day management must be an employee, whereas in practice this is not the case.

To complicate things a little more, there may be a need to establish what compensation relates to specific Directors duties and what compensation relates to general duties performed in the country - the tax / payroll treatment may be different.

As a result, tax technical analysis is recommended to verify the applicable domestic and relevant double tax treaty rules.

It should also be noted that when a non-resident director is taxed in the country where the company is established, it is possible that they will also be taxed in their home county. Double taxation may apply and this will be need to be resolved.

Social security  

Social security is a key cost and payroll related tax for employees and employers. For social security purposes, contributions in principle need to be paid in the country where the duties are performed.  

In the case of non-resident directors, we quickly find situations of simultaneous duties in two or more countries. The question then arises under which social security system the does the director fall?

Within Europe, the cross border social security rules need to be analysed to determine where (in which country) contributions are due. 

Other bilateral agreements between countries can also regulate where contributions are due. 

However, in case there are no agreements between the countries where the director performs their duties, it is possible that the director (and their employee) will need to pay social security contributions in two (or more) countries. This can result in duplicate costs and additional compliance reporting. 

Labour law

Consideration should also be given to local employment/labour law. A Director may require a specific local form of Directors service agreement that requires specific local clauses or obligations. This should not be overlooked. 


Non-resident Directors represent a highly visible but complex class of employee for compliance. They are often senior executives, well compensated and therefore present a high risk. 

Most HR and mobility professionals will want to ensure that this class of employee is compliant in all locations they are working. Key to this is understanding the different issues involved and working with the business to ensure they are reviewed with experts and any arrangement is compliant and cost effective. 

Mark Verbeek
Mark Verbeek

Crowe Spark, Brussels



Posted worker directive - Raphael Gaudin, Curator & Horwath AG Zurich - St. Gallen 

When managing and dealing with globally mobile employee there are lots of technical areas to consider - payroll, double taxation, tax equalisation, social security insurances and visas to name only a few. These are commonly in focus in the minds of mobility professionals. Increasingly, knowledge of and compliance with labour law is a very important part of the job too. Non-compliance can lead to penalties or even a ban from working a country. The consequences can be very serious. The posted worker directive is a cross border labour law consideration. As it is a directive, the implementation of it is slightly different at each country level. Local legal and practical knowledge is therefore really key.


Within the EU / EFTA, access to member state markets is a key and fundamental concept. Posting (or sending) of workers from one state to another is major part of this system. If the laws of the country where the work is actually performed would be applicable in every case, company postings to other member states would require knowledge about labour law of many member states. This would in turn hinder companies from realising the benefits of the free market. In order to avoid such difficulties the EU has developed a free movement of workers agreement according to which the regulations of the home country remain applicable in cases of a project/ posting  of limited duration in another member state (including EFTA and Switzerland).


Generally, we have to separate local employees from posted workers. A local worker/employee  is a mobile worker who enters into an employment agreement in the host country and becomes subject to local labour law and the social security system.

In contrast, a posted worker is an employee sent by his employer to carry out his work in another state for a limited period of time. For example on inter-company assignments or project related work. Based on free movement of workers agreements, posted workers remain under the labour law of the home country and are not governed by the labour law of the host country.

Since member states do have different minimum standards in terms working conditions, this system presents a risk that the posted worker is not on favourable or comparable terms when compared to local workers.  A separate issue is that local companies may not able to be compete with foreign companies operating with posted workers because there are vastly different costs or obligations. For that reason the posted worker directive was adopted in 1996 (96/71/EC). In addition, an enforcement directive has been implemented in 2014 and a revision made 2018.

The posted worker directive

The posted worker directive has the purpose of establishing a legal framework for workers being posted from one state to another state. It contains rules that govern the application of the labour law of the state where the work is carried out. The purpose of the directive is broadly that posted workers are treated comparably when compared to local employees.

The posted worker directive seeks to ensure the local labour market and posted workers’ rights are protected.  In practice, this is achieved by requiring the application of the main labour law standards in the host country to posted workers. It mainly covers the following areas:

  1. Working time (hours, holidays, pay)
  2. Standards applicable to agency workers
  3. Health and safety
  4. Pregnancy and maternity protection
  5. Discrimination law
  6. In the building and construction industry, collective labour/ bargaining agreements have also been confirmed as being applicable

A worker is posted from a French employer to carry out installation work in Switzerland. Although the French employment contract remains in place, a salary which is comparable to a Swiss market average comparable salary must be paid to the employee. If the salary in the home country is lower, the employee must be compensated for the difference between the French and the Swiss salary.

Hints and tips

Every member state has its own set of rules and implementation approach. 

To avoid labour law risk, penalties and business disruption, we strongly recommend that businesses take time to review how the posted worked directive has been implemented in the host country. Global Mobility professionals have a key role to play. 

It's important to also be aware the different minimum salary rates in various member states are a potentially significant driver of cost which must be evaluated before the posting of a worker; this must be part of the project calculation.

Global Mobility teams have an important role to apply to support their organisation in understanding and applying local regulations and help to avoid unexpected costs and risks associated with projects carried out in other member states.

Raphael Gaudin

Curator & Horwath AG
Zurich - St. Gallen 



Social Security in Europe - Roeland Esveld, Crowe Foederer,  Netherlands

Social security costs differ across Europe so it is vital that mobility professionals understand the basics of the cross border rules that apply so they can help their organisations stay compliant and avoid unnecessary cost, dual contributions and complexity.

Organisations often request employees to work across borders. In some scenarios the cross-border working arises due to the particulars of the employee rather than at the request of the business. For example, the employee may have relocated themselves to a new country but continued in the same role. In these scenarios employer and employee taxes and related payroll need to be reviewed. Social security is a key consideration. 

This week we will discuss the social security position in the EU area and the use of the so-called A1 Form. Common rules for what is known as social security coordination apply to EU member states, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Amongst the main purposes of the rules is the concept that social security contributions should be payable only in one country (at any given time). As a result, dual social security liabilities should be avoided.

What is an A1 Form?

The A1 form certifies which country social security rules or legislation (exclusively) apply to the holder of the form. This effectively confirms the country in which social security contributions are due.  The form will generally be needed in situations where a person has a connection with more than one EU-country, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. 

The A1 Form is based on the rules contained within European Directive (883/2004) that provides the cross border social security coordination rules. This Directive not only deals with rules for employees, but amongst others also for self-employed persons, civil servants, benefit recipients, pilots/cabin crew etc. We will focus on the rules for employees.

Coordination rules that determine which country social security rules and legislation (and therefore social security contributions) apply:

The main rule (and starting point) for employees is that the social security legislation of the country where the work is performed is applicable. In special cases or when an employee works in more than one country, there are exceptions to this rule. I will highlight the most common ones.

  1. When the employee is sent by the employer to work temporarily in another country on his behalf for a maximum period (initially) of 24 months, the employee will remain subject to the legislation of the country were posted from.
  2. When the employee is performing duties in more than one country at the same time, or in alteration, then the employee will be subject to the legislation of the country of their residence provided that the employee works at least 25% of his time in his country of residence. If it is less than 25%, then the employee will be subject to the legislation of the country where the employer is located.
  3. As an exception, two or more of the involved countries may by common agreement determine that the employee will be subject to the legislation of the country other than that provided by the normal rules. The A1 form will confirm to which legislation the employee is subject.

Where and when to obtain an A1 form

If the employee goes to work temporarily in another country, the employer will normally apply for the A1 from the relevant authority/institution in the home country (country where sent from). Employees who normally pursue activities in more than one country, apply for the A1 in the country of residence. When an exception to the normal coordination rules is appropriate, the A1 application is made to the authority/institution in the country where the employee would like to be subject to the legislation. View a full list of competent authorities/institutions. Whenever possible, the application should be made before the duties begin in the other country. The legislation determined as being applicable on the Form A1 is normally binding on all countries. The Form should be retained and made available for presentation to the institutions in the countries the employee is working in.;

Payroll consequences

The Form A1 confirms the country in which social security is payable. The same form also acts as confirmation that social security is not therefore due in the country in another country the employee is working in.  This form is therefore a very important document to retain for payroll audits.In some scenarios the social security legislation applies in a country that is different to the country where the employee is employed and on payroll. In these scenarios, the employer will need to be registered and payroll deductions, payments and reporting will apply. It may well be that taxes (wage / payroll taxes) will have also have to paid (and potentially withheld via the payroll). This would mean that a split or shadow payroll may also have to be implemented. This is a topic for another Mobility Mondays write up.


It’s important for mobility professionals to understand the basic rules that apply in Europe. This understanding will help them ensure payroll compliance and prevent costly dual social security contributions. The rules and how they apply to the UK may change after Brexit.

Roeland Esveld

Crowe Foederer



Commuters - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

I often hear organisations talk about how they opt for a commuter role rather than an expat or relocation move because it keeps things simpler.

This expectation however is often misplaced as commuter roles have the potential in some ways to be more complex from a compliance perspective (payroll, tax and social security). It’s important for Mobility / HR and Tax professionals to understand why so they can guide the business accordingly.

What is a commuter?

Let’s define what we mean by commuter. A commuter is an employee who lives in one country, is employed there but is required to work regularly in another country. There could be a weekly or a monthly pattern but what’s key is they are required to be outside their home country on a regular basis – it’s not just a business trip. No relocation is involved, the family, the family home and payroll remain in the home country.

For many reasons commuter roles have definitely been on the rise in recent years. Some of the key reasons include roles becoming more cross border in nature and the perception that commuter roles are viewed as cost effective alternatives when compared to expat roles. Brexit has been another trigger – presence is required in countries for regulatory reasons but the employee is settled at home (UK) so starts to commute.

Why can they be more complex?

To understand why a commuter can be more complex from a compliance perspective we probably need to understand why a typical expat assignment can be less so. In an expat scenario, or even a permanent transfer, there is usually a relocation. That relocation, family and home moving, often means the employee breaks tax residency in the home country. As a result, tax and payroll can over time primarily be a focus in the host country.

Commuters often stay tax resident in the home country – so there is payroll, income tax and social security potentially in both countries. Once worked through, cross-border social security rules can mean the social security is due in one country only but you are then still left with dual payroll and income taxes. The result is payroll gets very complex with specialist knowledge and adjustments being required to prevent double tax withholding and the income tax filings and liabilities for the employee get ever more complex.

The home country employer may also need to register in the host country for social security or payroll taxes. There are also related considerations around immigration, employment law, corporate tax permanent establishment and regulation such as posted worker directives to consider too. If that wasn’t enough to think about, it’s also necessary to check how travel, accommodation and subsistence costs are taxed in both countries. These are very often reimbursed or paid for directly by the employer so if they become taxable there can be hidden tax liabilities that can be unwelcome surprises and costs.

What tips are there?

There are solutions and methods to manage the complexities around payroll and taxes but early analysis is absolutely key. This way you can help the business understand the potential changes in obligations that can be triggered. The analysis may also help in identifying the compliance triggers in the host country, for example a certain number of days worked each year. The arrangement can then be structured or managed to either avoid tripping those triggers or at the very least the business is fully aware of what it is signing up for with the related additional complexity and costs.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom 



US: State to state compliance - Gary Johnson, Crowe US

Intra-country mobility compliance

Mobility and tax professionals will be aware that as employees work across borders they may give rise to changes in compliance obligations such as payroll and income tax filings. What’s not always as well understood is that intra-country mobility can also do the same. Working in different places in the same country can change compliance obligations for the employer. In the UK, we have Scottish Income Tax as an example but the best example of this is probably the USA.

US state to state compliance.

The US Tax and payroll system works in two parts. There is Federal tax as well as State and Local Taxes often referred to as ‘SALT.’ If a domestic employee, or even a globally mobile employee, is working in more than one US city or state it can mean payroll and income taxes to those cities or states are triggered. Employers need a process to monitor where their employees are working to mitigate risk.

Employees working outside of their 'home state' can give rise to payroll related compliance challenges for their employers as well as personally add to their own individual tax compliance burden … with a need to file extra state or city income tax returns. These employees are 'non-resident' because although they work in one state they live in another. As businesses expand, using 'just in time' service delivery methodology and broaden the use of flexible work arrangements, the employers's vulnerability to payroll tax compliance gaps grow.

Why is State Payroll Tax so complicated?

Well, let's start with the 50 state jurisdictions plus the District of Columbia.D.C. does not tax non-residents and nine states do not impose individual income tax on wages  which leaves us with 41 state tax jurisdictions that apply their own sets of rules to non-resident taxation.

The rules then vary from taxation on day one as applied by 24 states … to taxation based on the number of days per individual, the number of days by legal entity or varying wage thresholds to be applied to an employee in a quarter or calendar year. Once you have these rules sorted out, we then have to consider the Reciprocity agreements between certain states to see if there is an overriding agreement  that presents taxation to the 'resident' or 'home' state.  Now that you get the gist of the rules, or at least how complex they can be – let’s look at implementation.

For a select few sectors that use time and attendance/ timesheet systems (like professional services) then perhaps daily physical work location details are readily available? If so, it’s then a matter of applying the rules for each of your employees. Alternatively, if the physical work location data does not exist, alternatives include employee self-reporting, analysis of preferred or travel suppliers’ data as well as GPS smart phone related apps that can help facilitate the process. Gather the data, apply the tax rules and then integrate with company policies that reflect your corporate culture.

While today’s rules combined with the expanded use of a mobile workforce present payroll tax compliance challenges there are cost effective solutions for employers to mitigate their compliance risk. Another key point is having a solution in place to track employees’ workdays can of course can enable compliance but it can also be proactively used to prevent that same compliance from being triggered.

Note: The Mobile Workforce State Income Tax Simplification Act of 2019 was reintroduced with bipartisan support last week with the aim to universally apply a 30-day taxing threshold for non-residents working outside of their home state. Similar legislation aimed at State Tax Simplification was introduced in 2007, 2009, 2015 and 2017.

income tax rates


View income tax rates in your state [pdf]

gary johnson

Gary Johnson

Crowe LLP  



What are foreign tax credits? - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

For some, this is an area where just the mention of it can start to cause confusion. I am hoping therefore this is a useful write up. First of all, I will mention that often an abbreviated form - just FTC is used. Tax experts often refer to foreign tax credits as ‘FTCs.’

So what are FTCs and why do they occur?

When employees work across borders they may trigger taxation in more than one country – the home as well as the host country (for example). Let’s call home (Country A) and host (Country B). When taxation has been triggered in both countries income tax may become payable in both locations. It is not uncommon that one of the two countries (say Country B) taxes all of the income including the income taxed in Country A. In effect we have what is known as double taxation. Income tax is due on the same income in two different countries. Income tax is due in Country B on everything and in Country A as well (usually on a smaller portion of the income).

Double taxation, of course, would be unfair and would be very costly and demotivating to globally mobile employees. In a number of scenarios, such as where tax equalisation applies, the tax liabilities are transferred to the employer. This double taxation then becomes a potential cost to the employer.

Tax systems recognise that double taxation would be unfair. For example, if Country B charged tax of 25 on income of 50 and then Country A charged tax of 15 (on that same income of 50), then we have total tax of 40 or a tax rate of 80%. In response to this tax systems usually provide some mechanism to remedy this double taxation. One such mechanism is foreign tax credits. Where allowed, a country would compute the tax liability due but then give a “credit” for the tax paid in the other location.

Developing the example we had earlier:

  • Country B tax is 25
  • Country A tax is 15
  • Country B tax due is 10, (25 -15).

Country B has given a “foreign tax credit” so that the Country B tax due is reduced and double taxation is remedied. It’s not exactly this simple as the workings and calculations are significantly more complex and involved but this illustrates the point,.

Foreign tax credits are quite common in the area of mobility because often tax is driven by economic activity (as one example) and the employee is working in more than one country. Another cause can be compensation that is earned over multiple years – bonuses or equity compensation as examples. The employee may have worked in more than one country during the period to which these earnings relate so more than one country taxes and one of the countries taxes it all.

The double taxation issue can also be very relevant for payroll, after all no employer wants to pay payroll taxes on the same income in more than one country. Tax experts usually find ways of resolving this but it requires detailed knowledge of local and cross border payroll and mobility taxes.

In general, foreign tax credits are usually best left to be managed by tax experts as they can get complex quickly. That said, it is important for those working in the area of mobility to understand they exist. If you are told tax is due in more than one country on the same income, then a fair question is to check how is that resolved. Is a foreign tax credit available? If you are told that there are payroll obligations in two countries it is fair to ask if there are payroll taxes on the same income that will be costly for you as an employer. Again, a fair question is whether a foreign tax credit (or something similar) is available to resolve the double payroll tax?

The foreign tax credit is one of the ways in which double taxation is managed.

There are other methods – exemption for example, but this is not covered here.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom 



What is a certificate of coverage? - Nupur Rishi , Crowe MacKay, Canada

Social security is part of the payroll obligations that an employer has and usually consists of an employee and employer component. Like taxes, social security rates differ by country. It’s also important to note that in some countries social security is closely connected to the concept of pension and other related benefits so the ability for the employee to continue to pay into their home country social security system can be a key (and sometimes even an emotive) issue.When an employee from one country is sent to work in another country their compensation can be subject to social security taxes in both countries – so social security is due in the home and the host country (a double cost to the employee and the employer). To eliminate these dual costs a number of countries have signed agreements referred to as social security 'totalisation' agreements. The agreements usually clarify in certain situations the single country in which social security is due and provide a mechanism through which payments made in one country can be recognised in the country.In most agreements, if an employee is sent to work by their employer in another country for up to five years and they continue to be legally employed by the home country employer then home country social security only can be due. 

There are a number of detailed considerations that also have to be checked and worked through. Once worked through, the employer and employee can then apply for a document called a Certificate of Coverage from the social security administration of the home country. This certificate of coverage serves as evidence that an employee, an employer, or even a self-employed worker is subject to home country social security and there is an exemption (in part or whole) from contributing to the social security system of the host country. From a payroll compliance perspective this document is absolutely key. The employer in the host country needs to be able to demonstrate the basis on which social security in the host country is not paid. Payroll audits by local tax/social security authorities often ask for copies of these certificates and in their absence can insist the host social security is paid (a double cost).Within Europe, the certificate of coverage concept is usually is governed as part of the European social security rules which can result in a different document called an A1. We will deal with this separately.


Nupir RishiNupur Rishi 
Crowe MacKay




What is tax protection? - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

Tax protection is one of a few responses available to employers to help manage the challenge of differing tax and social security rates between countries. 

Different countries of course have different tax and social security rates so the net pay to the employee or assignees (after taxes) can change as they work in a new country. This change can become a barrier to mobility from an employee perspective as it adds complexity and uncertainty as well as changing net pay. We’ve discussed tax equalisation separately- this seeks to neutralise any differences – so the employee is no better or worse off. Tax protection, on the other hand, seeks to “protect” against any increases only. Consequently, the employee can therefore be better off, but should not be worse off (from a tax perspective)

For example, say the tax rate in the home country was 35% but it was 39% in the host country. In this case the employer would effectively settle the 4% extra tax under tax protection. Similarly, if the tax rate in the host was 29% then no employer assistance would be required.

This arrangement is usually deployed by employers where they recognise the tax differences issue, or there is double or multi-country taxation but they don't want apply a tax equalisation approach. In theory, it also allows the employee to benefit from any local country tax breaks which can be an incentive to take up the assignment. Usually, tax protection is part of a gross pay approach (so employee settles the taxes due) and then a reconciliation can be prepared to review if tax protection has in fact been triggered. Sometimes these reconciliations are prepared as standard each year and other employers prefer to have them prepared “on request” (employee has to request or they are prepared for certain employee categories only).  Whilst this approach may seem like it is “light touch” from an employer perspective my experience is it can actually get complex quickly. The tax is due by the employee so they usually become very focused on the amount and timing of taxes due in all locations to understand if they are worse off in any way. As a result, the requirement for line management /HR and expert support can increase.


Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom 



What is tax equalisation? - Dinesh Jangra, Crowe UK

Different countries have different tax and social security rates. If an employer sends an employee overseas for a work assignment, the new work location may result in different tax rates being applied so the take home pay after taxes could be different.

The purpose of a tax equalisation approach is to neutralise this and ensure that the employee is no better or worse off from a taxes perspective.

The approach usually (but not always) applies to stay at home compensation only. Personal and non-company income is usually (but not always) outside this arrangement.

The administration of the process involves the deduction of an estimated notional/ hypothetical tax from the employee. The actual taxes payable on company compensation then become payable by the employer. The estimated notional/hypothetical tax is then reconciled each year. Tax equalisation approaches enable and promote employee mobility.

Dinesh Jangra

United Kingdom